The St.Clairs, later the Sinclair family name, dates back to the Viking Age.
Hrolf also known as Rollo (860-932), the son of Rognvald, the Earl of More, the Viking warrior who plundered Europe’s coastlines, and went on to create the French Dukedom of Normandy, at the mouth of the River Seine. Rollo was converted to Christianity and baptised by the Archbishop of Rouen in 911AD.
Rollo was the great-great-great grandfather of William I of England (William the Conqueror) who fought for the English crown, at the “Battle of Hastings” in 1066 and won.
Freemasonry was founded in Scotland by Robert the Bruce and William Sinclair, following the “Battle of Bannockburn.” It was their way of protecting the secrets of the Knights Templar, the so called guardians of the Holy Grail.
The legacy of the Knights Templar and the Masons, is incorporated in the secret symbols and puzzles adorning the walls of Rosslyn Chapel.
Buried vaults, once accessible, below the chapel house the remains of ten Barons of Roslin in full armour, along with their treasures.
Legend has it, the Holy Grail, which is believed to have been brought back from Jerusalem, lies with them, they being its protector… One has to wonder if there is any truth in the legend?
In 1066 William the Conqueror invades England, resulting in the Norman conquest of England’s Saxons, taking the English throne, and aided by the St.Clair knights.
In 1096 Henry St.Clair joins Godfrey de Bouillon on the 1st Crusade to the Holy Land. King Malcolm III of Scotland grants Rosslyn to Henry.
In 1156 Henry St.Clair is appointed as Ambassador to England by King David I.
The name Sinclair of Norman descent originated from “Saint-Clair-sur-Elle” was established in Scotland in 1162 when Henry St.Clair was granted lands in Lothian.
William St.Clair the son of Henry is born in 1260.
In 1280 Sir William Sinclair becomes guardian to the heir of Alexander III and gains the Barony of Rosslyn.
In 1296, Sir William Sinclair was taken prisoner at the “Battle of Dunbar” and died in the Tower of London.
In 1297 a Scottish army under the command of William Wallace captures Stirling Castle from King Edward I at the “Battle of Stirling Bridge.” Sir William Sinclair serves as one of Wallace’s commanders.
In 1303, Scottish forces under the leadership of Henry Sinclair and the Comyn Clan, defeated the English at the “Battle of Roslin.”
In 1307 Robert the Bruce and Henry Sinclair’s forces defeated the English at the “Battle of Loudon Hill.”
In 1314 Sir Henry St.Clair fights alongside Robert the Bruce, King of Scotland at the “Battle of Bannockburn.” They defeated the English, gaining Scotland’s Independence.
In 1320 The Declaration of Arbroath was drawn up to get the Pope to recognise Scotland’s right of Independence, which had not been accepted by the English. Sir Henry St.Clair was one of the signatories upon the document, which received approval from the Pope.
In 1330 Sir William St.Clair along with John Sinclair, his brother and Scottish knights carried the heart of Robert the Bruce to the Holy Land. They died in battle in the Holy Land, and their bodies were returned to Scotland.
In 1345 Prince Henry Sinclair is born at Rosslyn Castle.
In 1358 Sir William Sinclair, Prince Henry’s father dies in battle fighting Lithuanians in Prussia.
In 1366 Prince Henry is knighted.
In 1379 Prince Henry Sinclair is installed as the Earl of Orkney and Lord of the Shetland’s. The Orkney Earldom is obtained from King Haco VI of Norway.
In 1390 Prince Henry meets Nicolo Zeno. Prince Henry goes to the aid of shipwrecked sailors, and discovers these mariners are Venetians. Their commander; Nicolo Zeno brother of Carlo Zeno famous admiral of the seas, appoints him as commander of his fleet.
In 1398 Prince Henry Sinclair sets sail for the New World, with a fleet of thirteen ships.
In 1399 after wintering in Nova Scotia Prince Henry’s fleet make land at Massachusetts.
In 1446 William Sinclair builds Rosslyn Chapel, and dedicates it to the Knights Templar.
In 1455 William Sinclair, 3rd Earl of Orkney is granted the Earldom of Caithness.
In 1470 the Earl of Orkney and Caithness was compelled to resign Orkney over to James III in exchange for Castle of Ravenscraig in Fife. For the King was jealous of the semi-royal chief of the Earldom of Orkney, which had been inherited by the Sinclairs from the Norse Sea-Kings.
In 1513, William Sinclair the 2nd Earl of Caithness lost his life at the “Battle of Flodden,” fighting for James IV of Scotland, who also died in the battle.
In 1568, Henry the 3rd Lord Sinclair was one of those who played his part, assisting Mary, Queen of Scots to escape from Lochleven Castle.
William Sinclair of Mey, was knighted by King James VI of Scotland on the 11th December 1592.
In 1651 while fighting in the army of King Charles II of Scotland against the forces of Oliver Cromwell, John Sinclair is taken prisoner. He is sent to America as a prisoner of war.
In 1658, John Sinclair now a free man, becomes John Sinkler, and settles in Exeter, New Hampshire, America, where he becomes a landowner.
In 1680, the “Battle of Altimarlech” took place between the Sinclairs and Campbells, over internal land disputes.
The Sinclairs supported the Jacobite rebellion in 1715, by 1745 had changed sides, supporting the British Hanoverian government.
Sir James Sinclair commanded the Royal Scots regiment for the British Hanoverians at the “Battle of Culloden in 1746.