Rosicrucians: Out of Darkness

Rosicrucian Order

In the 18th century, some four hundred years after the Templar Order had been forced out of the limelight.  They were to emerge as an influential Order within Masonic and Rosicrucian beliefs.

Karl Gottheff, Varon von Hund, founder of the Strict Observance Rite, who established Templar traditions, Templar rules within the Masons.  Baron von Hund had been initiated into the Paris Lodge, led by Lord Kilmarnock, Grand Master of Scottish Freemasons, and the Guardians of Templar traditions.

Supporters of the Jacobite cause claimed that a Masonic Lodge had been founded in 1700’s Scotland, and drew its charter from a surviving Templar Chapter, which had been operational for some 700 years, in Bristol.

At his Masonic initiation, von Hund claims to have met with the knight of the Red Feather, better known as Prince Charles Stuart.  Baron von Hund went on to found a German branch of the neo-Templar’s in Germany.  Based on von Hund’s account of things, the Scottish chapter of the Knights Templar had been founded by two English members of the Order.  They who had discovered the Elixir of Life, and actively practised alchemy.

A popular 18th century occult myth states that Templar’s were initiates of Gnostic teachings passed down by the Essenes, they who had iniated Jesus into its mysteries.  Meo-Templarism attempted to combine pagan and wisdom with Christian ideals.  According to Freemasonry, Templar influence of the 18th century spoke of a myth; three renegade Knights betrayed King Phillip of France to fellow Masons, who murdered Hiram Abiff in Solomon’s Temple.  Masonic references of assassination of Charles de Monte Carmel a prominent Templar who underwent a ritual murder…  This murder according to 18th century Masons, marked a turning point in the history of the Knights Templar and led to their eventual downfall.

The survival of the Knights Templar tradition was masterminded by Jacques de Molay, the Order’s last Grand Master, whilst in a French prison awaiting his execution.  On the evening of the 17th March 1314 the night before being burnt at the stake on unproved charges of heresy.  DeMolay sent a trusted aide to the Templar’s secret crypt in Paris, where the Order’s past Grand Master’s had been entombed.  Symbolic objects sacred to the Order, were duly removed.

Jacques de Molay trusted his aide, with the future of the Knights Templar.  The two pillars which stood at the entrance to the templar tombs were in fact hollow and contained money and artefacts.  It was De Molay’s wish that they be removed, before falling into the hands of the French Monarchy.  The Templar money and symbolic objects were to be used in the re-creation of the Order, preventing the loss of their secrets.

The two pillars of the crypt entrance were copies of the obelisks which stand at the gateway of Solomon’s Temple.  The pillars held detailed manuscripts, detailing occult teachings within the Templar Order.

Johann Augustus Starck, another claimant of the Templar revival, encountered Masonic Templarism whilst teaching in St.Petersburg.  He went on to make contact with surviving Templar Order’s in Southern France, they who were renowned for practising in the Cathar style.  It was Stark’s belief that the Templar’s had inherited occult from the likes of Persia, Seria and Egypt, and these were passed on to the Essenic secret society, operating in the Middle East during the Crusades.

His version of neo-Templarism received approval leading to patronage of European aristocrats and membership of new Masonic Templar lodges.  Gustav III of Sweden became a patron to neo-Templarism, a firm supporter of the Scottish Pretenders and the Jacobites.

Frederick the Great

Frederick the Great

In 1767, Frederick the Great founded two neo-Masonic lodges; “Order of the Architects of Africa,” and the “Knights of Light.”  That same year, Frederick the Great became a financial supporter of Orthodox Freemasonry.  In the next year (1768) Frederick commissioned the construction of a Grand Lodge for the Prussians.

A few years later, the title Illuminati was one of the Masonic Secret Societies.  The “Order of the Illuminati, the occultists became a title associated by Rosicrucian’s and known as key figures in secret political history.

The grand convention of Masonic Lodges in 1771 openly admitted mythical descent from the Templar Order.  Johann Augustus Stark’s group merged with Baron von Hund’s.

adam-weishauptThe Illuminati were founded by Adam Weishaupt, a professor at the Bavarian University of Ingoldstat, in the year 1776, the same year as the American Revolution.  He being of Jewish descent, educated by Jesuits in the Catholic faith.

Whilst an undergraduate, Weishaupt studied Ancient Pagan Religions, Eleusinian Mysteries and Theories of the Greek mystic and philosopher; Pythagoras.  As a student drafted a constitution for a secret society, centred on paganism.

In 1774, he made contact with a Masonic lodge in Germany, and was disappointed by what he found.  They being ignorant to occult and Masonic connections, with no knowledge of pagan symbolism.

On the 1st May 1776, Adam Weishaupt announced the foundation of the “Order of Perfectibilists,” which later became known as the Illuminati.

Weishaupt had a vision, a political vision, a utopian state, with the abolition of private property, social authority and nationality.  He believed human beings would live in harmony, within a brotherhood, based on love, peace, spiritual wisdom and equality.  His main targets of reform were the Monarchy, Church and rich landowners.

The Illuminists attempted overthrow of Hapsburg in 1784, which led to the Bavarian government banning all secret societies, and so it was Weishaupt’s followers went underground.

Comte de Mirabeau a prominent Illuminist, was one of the founders responsible for the French Revolution of 1789.  Aiming at the destruction of the French Monarchy and destroying the Catholic Church, to be replaced by the “Religion of Love,” across France.

Early 1791, allegations arose about the role played by Masons and Illuminate, partly based on the confessions of Comte Cagliostro (Comte Cagliostro born Joseph Balsamo in Parlemo, Sicily in 1743) arrested in 1789 on charges of heresy.

Comte Cagliostro

Comte Cagliostro

Cagliostro married Lorenza Felicioni whom he controlled by use of hypnotism, taught to him by Dr.Mesmer a fellow Mason.  Lorenza went on to denounce her husband in the “Inquisition for practising heresy.”  He spoke of an international conspiracy by Illuminati, neo-Templar’s and Freemasons, taking place across Europe.  He revealed their ultimate object, was to complete work started by the original Knights Templar; the overthrow of the Papacy and the election of an Illuminist as Pope.

He went on to confess that large sums of money had been deposited in banks in Holland, Italy, France and England to finance revolutions.  Funds to finance the French Revolution came from the House of Rothschild… Was this fact or fiction, was Comte Cagliostro just trying to save his life.  No historical evidence can be found to support such claims.

The radicalism of Masonic Lodges prior to the French Revolution, alienated followers amongst aristocratic classes in France.  By 1792 few lodges were still practising, and faced hostilities from the revolutionary government.  At Versailles former Grand Master of a Templar lodge was lynched by an angry mob.  Masonry came under suspicion by those in power, in their belief of a counter revolution.

The Masons who had helped start the French Revolution, and within a few years became a victim of their own creation.

French Revolution

French Revolution

By 1796, it had become common knowledge that Masons and Templars had a hand in the French Revolution of 1789.  With Jacques de Molay, Templar’s last Grand Master, a prisoner in the Bastille before his execution in 1314, and as such, the Bastille was the first target for the mob.  It wasn’t long before connections revealed that the Templar’s and Jesuits were dedicated to the creation of a church within a church.

Duc’d Orleans, Grand Master of French freemasonry an illuminist, plotted against the French Royal family.  It is believed he practised a secret occult ritual, using relics from the past, which once belonged to de Molay.  Were these the sacred objects from the Templar Crypt in Paris?  Unfortunately, historical writings are unable to provide the answer.

“The Tomb of Jacques de Molay” was published in France of 1796, claiming that the French Revolution was the work of anarchists, they who could trace their lineage back to the Templar’s and Assassins.

Father Bamuel a Jesuit priest published his book; “Memoires pour serir de I’histoire du Jacobinisme,” tracing the survival of Manichean heresy through Catharism, Assassins, Templars, Freemasons and French Revolution.

The Royal Families of Europe were shocked by the Illuminist plot of universal revolution, they had witnessed the French Revolution and feared being next in line.  In 1790 the Bavarian government brought in a law that membership of the Illuminati was classed as a capital offence.

England feared the hand of these secret societies, and Parliament attempted to bring in the “Unlawful Societies Act,” which would have outlawed Freemasonry.  It failed, because they never dabbled in politics.

Napoleon Bonaparte

Napoleon Bonaparte

Napoleon Bonaparte’s rise meant Freemasons faced a bleak future.  Bonaparte was well aware of the Illuminist’s role in the French Revolution.  He used the Freemasons for his own political ends.

Joseph and Lucien, brothers of Napoleon Bonaparte became Grand Masters of the Orient.  They attracted many new members, and by the end of his reign the Grand Orient boasted some 1200 lodges across France, and by the 1800’s had infiltrated the French Colonies.

In the March of 1808, a neo-Templar Order held a public requiem for Jacques de Molay, the last Grand Master of the Knights Templar.  Held at St.Paul’s Church in Paris, presided over by the Canon of Notre Dame; Abbe Pierre Romains.

In 1809 a secret Masonic Lodge came into being in France “Sublimes Maitres Parfait” (Sublime Perfect Masters), with similarities to Catharism.  They opposed Napoleon and saw him as a traitor of France.

The pre-Royalist Masonic Lodge claimed success in 1814, with the abdication of Napoleon Bonaparte in favour of King Louis XVII.  The Paris revolt of 1830, led to Louis Philippe taking his place on the throne.

king louis Philippe

Louis Philippe

Louis Philippe placed Freemasons under his protection, appointed Duc d’Orleans his son, as the Order’s new Grand Master.

The Masonic convention of 1842 held in Strasburg, sowed the seeds of the 1848 Revolution by radical elements in European Masonry; they preached anarchism and socialism.

In 1850 Napoleon III made it law, that Grand Orient Lodges were forbidden to interfere in politics, even though they received support of the politicians.

The Illuminati failed to create social order across France, but had influenced another revolution.

In 1776 American colonists challenged the British in the War of Independence, the blueprint, a society based on democracy, freedom and social equality… A New World.

American War of Independence

The American Revolution, a social experiment engineered by secret societies.

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The Green Man

Green Man

The Green Man

A major Templar site, the famed Rosslyn Chapel in Scotland, has a number of these Green Man carvings upon its walls, which suggests that the Templar’s recognised the Green Man as an ancient source of their idiosyncratic beliefs.

Often portrayed as a head with foliage growing from its mouth, the Green Man carvings represent fertility, growth of nature.  Although one assumes that the carvings are of Celtic origin this is not the case, being discovered in Borneo, Himalayas, Kathmandu, Ranakpur temples and chapels.

Being the primal King of the world, the Green Man is known by many legendary names; Osiris and Lucifer.  He is the life force, so he has the ability to manifest at any time, in any practical form, that meets the appropriate dress code of the area.

Templar sites were found on former sites where once the Druids built their temples.  Notre Dame Cathedral built by the Templar’s was one of many which sits upon pagan ground.

Chartres Cathedral in France does not have a single King, Bishop, Cardinal or Canon interred in its soil, being built upon a former pagan site.

Womb of the Earth

Womb of the Earth

The original altar built above the Grotte des Druides, houses a sacred dolmen, being identified with the “Womb of the Earth.”

Our Lady of Light

Our Lady of Light

Many of the architectural drawings for the finer parts of Gothic Cathedrals were obtained from a 2nd century Greek alchemical manuscript and dedicated to the patron of France;  Notre Dame de Lumiere (Our Lady of Light).  This design believed to be one of the most sacred designs on earth.

Other than Green Man carvings, Gothic styled Cathedrals were built with esoteric imagery and other pagan structures.  Cathedrals contained astronomical symbolisms of Gods and fables of cosmic creations.  The Gods were deemed as representations of planets and stars; the heavenly bodies of the universe.

Chartres Cathedral Labyrinth

Chartres Cathedral Labyrinth

Symbols found within Gothic Cathedrals, were known to convey strong messages about the power of feminine.  The Labyrinth on the floor of Chartres Cathedral in France refers to female mysteries.  This place is not for the praise of the Virgin Mary, because it is the home of the Black Madonna – Our Lady of the Underworld.


The Baphomet introduced by the Templars proved beyond doubt that the Knights Templar were Gnostic Occultists.  Their idol was used in many rituals by the order, its purpose to receive wisdom.

Levi a French Occultist depicted the Baphomet as that of a hybrid goat, containing spiritual and universal elements, revealing esoteric knowledge.

Central to the accusations brought against the Knights Templar at their trials, was that they worshipped an idol named Baphomet, said to have taken the form of a head.

The Baphomet is one aspect of the Templar myths which generate so many theories as to its true origins.  The interest in Baphomet has survived for hundreds of years and taken many forms.  The opinions on the Baphomet vary greatly from scholar to scholar and mystic path to mystic path.

Some describe the Templars as Devil worshipping Occultists, while historians are of the belief that the Templar’s were party to the machinations of corrupt government and church.  Some believe “Baphomet was the deity worshipped by the Knights Templar, and in Black Magic as the source and creator of evil; the Satanic goat of witches.

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Templar Order: The Dark Side

Knights Templar 1

Templar history reveals the transformation that was taking place through time.  They started out under the banner of Christianity, and it wasn’t long before they entered a darker period of history.

These changes took place, during their time in the Holy Land, when they came in contact with Cabala and learned of the teachings of the Jewish sects.

The Assassins mysticism and other perverse practices were incorporated into their system, and the emerging picture reveals Christian faith stepping back, giving way to secret occultist and black magic rituals.

They started out as poor knights of the Templar Order, and over a relatively short period of history, they had gone on to acquire considerable wealth.  So it was to be, they set their sights on grander goals.

Many became convinced that in order to gain wealth, all that was required was help from the dark side, which could be achieved through Black Magic.

Scientific methods were used in contacting and taking control of invisible powers by the use of secret codes, magic signs, formulas and incantations.  Poisons were prepared, elixir of life sought, alchemists desired to create gold through minor metals.

Templar’s sought control of this world, aided by the invisible one, worshipped Satan and called upon him to dominate the powers of darkness.

With years of research by the courts of King and Pope, they were able to prove that these Templar’s were hiding behind a Christian facade.

The Templar’s had gathered dark world symbols, traditions and rituals, and founded a system within castles built for the purpose; it was the start of secret societies evolutions.

The Templar’s never ceased to exist; they infiltrated the lodges of weak and passive Masons, and went on to found the “Order of the Rosicrucian’s,” reorganizing and strengthening the order.

Baron Karl von Hund, creator of Masonry’s “Rite of Strict Observance” added the Templar legend to the Masonic Craft.

Over the following centuries, Masonic Templarism branched out, expanding world-wide and becoming a serious global power, yet staying true to its Templar ideology.

In 1717, Masons created an organization providing tolerance and freedom of thought within religious, political and ideological environment of the 18th century.  Signs, traditions and ceremonies of the organization were derived from Freemasonry, Templar and Rosicrucian secret societies.  Its philosophy was the idea of free thought.

Knights Templar: Temple Bruer

Temple Bruer

Temple Bruer Church and Buildings

Temple Bruer emerged in the middle of the vast Lincoln Heath, which spread out southwards from the city of Lincoln.  The heath sparsely populated, and during the Templar times, would have been desolate and forbidding.

The Order of the Knights Templar, were bequeathed the land by William of Ashby in the mid 12th century.  The Templar’s with their renowned vigour and enterprise built a great preceptor and established a productive estate.

As the Templar’s built their property, rumours spoke of a tunnel running under the heath, from the preceptor to the village of Wellingmore, some two miles away.  Templar properties were often associated with such clandestine features.

Temple Bruer Church Plan

Church Plan

The Temple Bruer estate would have been some 4,000 acres in size, featuring a round church, with a number of smaller buildings huddled around it, complete with a defensive wall and gatehouse.   The people living within would fall into four categories: Knights – Sergeants – Servants – Chaplains.

The village of Temple Bruer did not exist before the Templar’s arrived; it was built to house the workforce needed by the Order; labourers, builders along with their families, who would become the Templar’s tenants.  In 1259, the village was granted a charter to have its very own market.

The original Templar estate extended to the west, to an area known as Lincoln Cliff, where the knights typically exploited the climate and built a windmill.  They were in fact the first recorded users of windmills in Europe.

Ermine Street, the old Roman road, runs along the top of the cliff and would have been used by the Templar’s as they travelled up from London, and onto Lincoln and York.  It also follows the same route they would have taken to and from their training grounds at Byard’s Leap, which marks the southernmost limit of their property.

Lincolnshire Longwool Sheep

Lincolnshire Longwool Sheep

Temple Bruer made the change from arable farming to sheep farming, with the breeding of Lincolnshire Longwool sheep.  All wool produced on Templar farms in the immediate area, was collected at Temple Bruer, shipped in Templar vessels, from eastern ports, bound for the continent.  An extremely efficient system had been created, and Temple Bruer evolved into a wealthy preceptor in England.

Byard’s Leap, located to the south of Bruer’s estate, with sizeable stretches of level heath land, provided the Templar’s with tournament areas.  It was here they held war games… engaging forces would take part in simulated battles.

When the Knights Templar were dissolved, Temple Bruer passed to the Hospitaller’s who retained it until the Dissolution of the Monasteries, by King Henry VIII, who then sold the estate to the Duke of Suffolk.

Temple Bruer Tower

Temple Bruer Tower

Temple Bruer remains consist of a square, three-storey tower with a spiral staircase, constructed out of Lincolnshire oolitic limestone.  The tower underwent partial restoration in the early 20th century.  Interior walls consist of inscriptions, believed to be associated with the Templar’s.

(Image) Temple Bruer Church: Papa Donkey
(Image) Temple Bruer Tower: Papa Donkey
(Image) Temple Bruer Chauch Plan: Papa Donkey
(Image) Longwool Sheep: Wikipedia


Templar Trials


The Templar’s had defended Christendom against Islam in the Holy Land, protected pilgrims on route to Jerusalem and other holy sites.

In October of 1307, Templar’s in France were arrested on mass, and charged with acts of heresy.

French Templar’s, admitted charges of heresy under torture.  Pope Clement V, is said to have tried to block said trials, but was outmanoeuvred by King Philip IV of France, who stated if they admitted their guilt, they were guilty.  Any Templar who recounted his confession, claiming they gave a false statement under torture, found it mattered not, as they were still burned at the stake as relapsed heretics.

For British Templar’s they had King Edward II on their side, he being reluctant to arrest these individuals, questioning the legality of being told by France, what to do.

Edward found himself in a difficult position, his father Edward I had left him a kingdom in debt, he could not oppose his French counterpart.

Edward needed all the support he could muster, and as such had to comply by Pope Clement’s decree, if he wanted papal support.

Edward instructed his sheriffs in England, and officials in Scotland, Wales and Ireland, to arrest Templar’s on site, but made it known, that they were to be treated well, and comfortably housed, not imprisoned as urged by Pope Clement V.

Templar land became Edward’s lands.  He granted Templar’s a daily allowance of four pence, and two shillings for William de la More, chief official in Britain.  Allowances came from Templar revenue, and any surplus found its way to the royal treasury.  Edward used his windfall, paying off his father’s debts, rewarding his followers, with gifts to his supporters.

In September of 1309, two inquisitors appointed by the Pope; Abbot Dieudonne and Sicard of Vaur arrived in England, to carry out interrogations on the Templar’s.

On the 23rd October 1309, interrogations started in London.  What had been clear cut cases in France, proved anything but in England?  The Templar’s in London denied all charges of heresy.  The inquisitors wanted to use torture as they had done in France, but English common law did not allow the use of torture.

Procedures against possible heretics, allowed for church officials, to seek out those who were employed by the Templar’s.  Some seventeen non-Templar witnesses in November 1309 through to January 1310, came forward, and spoke in their support.

Robert the Dorturer, notary public figure of London, showed hostility towards the Templar’s accusing a former grand commander of sodomy… he was unable to produce any proof of his so called charges.

On the 23rd October 1309, the trial of the Templar’s commenced in London.

The initial interrogations by inquisitors taking place in London revealed some Templar’s had limited understanding.  They were unable to understand the differences; sins against God and infringement of rules as laid down by the order.  Only a priest could absolve a Templar of Sin.  Only a Grand Master could absolve one of infringing regulations.

On the 17th November 1309, Templar interrogations commenced in Scotland, but were cut short by the Anglo-Scottish war.  Those Templar’s who resided in Scotland, were of English origin, and confessed to nothing of a heretical nature.

Lord Henry Sinclair and Lord Hugh of Rydale, whose lands bordered the Templar estates of Midlothian, stated they believed the Scottish Templar’s were good Christians.  However, they could not speak for European Templar’s.

Irish Friar’s believed their Templar’s could be guilty of acts of heresy, but they had no proof to the fact.  It was based on here say.

Lincoln Castle

Lincoln Castle

When inquisitors reached Lincoln in March of 1310, they found similar confusion as in London, limited understanding of the order’s beliefs.  Similar confusion existed in York as well.

Templar Yorkshire priest; Ralph of Ruston declared to all those present, an Abbot can absolve persons of their convent, because he is a priest.

By June of 1310, papal inquisitors were becoming frustrated; for they had found no evidence of heresy among British Templar’s.  They believed torture was the only way, to get answers.

The papal inquisitors contacted Robert Winchelsey, the Archbishop of Canterbury, asking for assistance.  They complained King’s ministers were bribing the King, not to assist inquisitors.  Even to the point of buying off officials, who would be called upon to carry out acts of torture.

Tower of London.jpg

Tower of London

In the August of 1310, King Edward II agreed that all Templar’s held in Lincoln Castle, would be moved to London, arriving in the March of 1311, for imprisonment and torture.

In the July of 1311, Church Councils of London and York absolved Templar’s who agreed to swear off all heresy… any who refused, would remain in prison.

In the October of 1311, the Pope summoned a Church Council at Vienne in the south of France, to discuss British Templar’s.  Papal inquisitors only evidence was based on gear say evidence, second or third hand stories.

Only three British Templar’s were ever tortured; Stephen of Stapelbrugge, who had fled to Ireland during the troubles and returned home in June 1311, Thomas Totty who had infuriated Abbot Dieudonne and John of Stoke a priest.  They confessed to some charges, and it was enough to bring the work of the inquisitors to an end.  The Templar’s claim of innocence and evidence in their favour was ignored.  So it was in July of 1311 the Church Council in London, agreed to dissolve the Order of the Temple.

Not a single Templar in Britain was condemned on charges of heresy; no one was burnt at the stake.

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Knights Templar: Portugal

Tomar - Portugal

Scotland appears to have been Freemasonic homeland; Portugal on the other hand represented the Templar’s commercial base, a source of revenue and headquarters.  Portugal is a country that had been founded by the Templar’s.

In 1128, the order of the Knights Templar settled in Portugal, and gradually took over the country’s military and commercial strength.

In that same year Teresa of Portugal endowed upon the knights, the region of Fonte Arcada, granting them many privileges.  In return the Templar’s supported her expansion of her then weak country.

In 1160, a Knights Templar castle was constructed in Tomar, and became the orders headquarters in Portugal.

King Alfonso of Portugal corresponded with Saint Bernard, welcoming his monastic order with open arms.  Monasteries and churches sprung up across the land, along with estates under Cistercian control.

In 1294, the initiative of the Templar’s, led to the signing of the “Treaty of Windsor,” between England and Portugal, and aimed at bestowing military power on both countries.

The anti-Templar movement which had grown in France had little effect in Portugal.

The order of the Knights Templar had been officially dissolved by Pope Clement V in 1312, and its knights, servants and monks considered outlaws.

King Denis of Portugal exonerated the Templar’s and with pressure and opposition to the order from France, came up with a plan which would be of benefit to both parties; King and Templar’s.

A plan was conceived; the order of the Knights Templar would disappear and be re-established under a new name affiliated to the Portuguese monarchy.  Templar assets could not fall into church hands, and they could continue to exist.

So it was the order of the “Knights Templar” faded into the distant past, and rose again as the “Order of Christ.”

The former Knights Templar now known as the Order of Christ could continue carrying out their illegal activities under the protection of the King of Portugal, no longer abiding by church rules.

Templar’s found a more liberal environment in Spain and Portugal under the Order of Christ, and the order received its official recognition in 1319 by Pope John XII, out of his desire to win the Templar’s back to the church.

The church was unwilling to lose the Templar’s who represented a major military, financial and logistical power.

In 1415, Prince Henry the navigator led his forces, in the conquest of Ceuta, in a creation of a Portuguese empire, which stretched out far beyond their coastline.  In 1417 he became Grand Master of the Order of Christ until 1460, undertaking works of evangelism for the Pope and Church.  Henry went on to colonise the Azores and Madeira islands, building two gothic cloisters in the Convent of Tomar during his time as grand master.

By 1492, the order was suffering from declining membership, based on its rules of poverty – chastity – obedience, and things had to change for survival.  Pope Alexander VI commuted vows of celibacy to conjugal chastity, and was withdrawn in 1496.  Poverty was withdrawn in 1505 by order of Pope Julius II.

The order was showing signs of becoming less monastic and more secular.  Brother Antonius of Lisbon, attempted a reform, which brought an end to a religious life among its knights.  Under these changes, the order became an organisation.  Its aim was to achieve commercial and political success, and to redraft the laws of the church in a manner compatible with capitalism.

It was about this time, a new society without religious image, but serving the same function was created.  This new organization had its roots in England, and had taken the name; Freemasonry.  Freemasons represented a most influential power which would survive to the present day.

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Knights Templar: Rise and Defeat


On the 4th July 1187, Saladin defeated Christian forces at the “Battle of Hattin.”  Many Christian crusaders were slain, many wounded, many thrown into chains.

Guy of Lusignan, the King of Jerusalem, witnessed the fall of the “Cross of Salvation”, he was overcome with pity, rushing forward without thought, as he flung his arms around the cross.

Guy of Lusignan, along with fellow warriors, were taken prisoner, to await the victor’s will, as to their fate.

Saladin so ordered, that all Templar’s with the exception of their master, were to be beheaded.

Guy de Lusignan, became the prisoner of Saladin, and one year later on the anniversary of that battle, was freed after swearing an oath, never to attack Muslims.

England, France and Germany, made the joint decision, that Jerusalem had to be re-taken, and so the Third Crusade was launched.

It was essential they had a base of operations, which to land troops and supplies.  Acre was its harbour, proved to be the best option, and so it was, ships of King Philip of France and King Richard of England, set forth on their journey.

Following King Richard’s capture of Cyprus by his naval forces, the Knights Templar Grand Master; Robert de Sable made a proposal purchase of Cyprus from King Richard I (Richard – the – Lionheart).  The price was agreed, of 100,000 bezants (gold currency of Byzantium), commencing with a 40,000 deposit.

It proved that the Templar’s financial status was strong, being able to raise that amount, shortly after the “Battle of Hattin.”

Acre fell to the Muslims in 1291, bringing the Christian presence in Palestine to an end.

The Knights Templar, robbed of their role as defenders of the Holy Land, saw many take up residence in Cyprus, in the Mediterranean.  The Templar’s had sought their own Kingdom, but been pushed out by Muslim forces.

The Grand Master of the Knights Templar, located in France, had a status on par with European Kings.  These Templar’s owned much land across Christendom, with a warrior army to back their political position.  Europe’s ruling houses, found themselves indebted to these Templar’s, fearing their future was under threat.

The English throne was indebted to the Templar order, for King John had emptied the coffers of the treasury during his reign, to finance military operations.  King Henry III, was faced with similar financial problems, and had no option, but to take out loans with the Knights Templar.

The Knights Templar offices in Paris held the treasury of Templar’s and French government.  The Templar treasurer and the French King’s finance officer were one and the same.  France found itself under Templar control.

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