Knights Templar: William Saint Clair

In 1441, King James II appointed William Saint Clair, Earl of Orkney and Caithness, as Patron and Protector of Scotland’s Freemasons, an office which became hereditary one for the family.  With the death of William Saint Clair in 1484, the office of hereditary patron, was passed down to his descendants.

In the year 1446, a founding charter was received from Rome, allowing for the construction of Rosslyn Chapel: Collegiate Church of St. Mathew, the family church of the St.Clairs.

William St.Clair spent four years exploring French Cathedrals and their gothic design, for the design of Rosslyn Chapel.  Then he invited skilled stonemasons from across Europe to come to Scotland, and build the chapel dedicated to the Knights Templar.

According to Scottish tradition, its kings exercised the right in nominating office-bearers to the Freemasons craft.  Only one king neglected to carry out the orders.  First, he be King James VI of Scotland (1567-1603) and carried out his duties, and then as King James I of England (1603-1625), during which time he omitted to carry out his duties.

William St.Clair died in 1484, the office of hereditary Patron was passed down through the family timeline, to the next living descendant.

Around 1600, Freemasons found they were without Protector, and duly appointed William Saint Clair of Roslin, who presided over the order until 1630 when he went to Ireland.  A charter was issued, granting his son Sir William Saint Clair to take over his position in Scotland, and signed off by Masters and Wardens of Scottish Lodges.  Over the next hundred years, the craft continued to flourish, in terms agreed between the Laird of Roslin and Freemasons of Scotland.

The year was 1736 and William Saint Clair to whom the Hereditary Protectorship had descended by right of succession, had no children, and feared the Office of Grand Master, should not become vacant upon his death. 

Accordingly, thirty-two representatives from Edinburgh Lodges assembled, on the 30th November 1736, where their current leader, resigned his post, making way for the election of a new Grand Master.  William Saint Clair was chosen as the new Grand Master in 1737, the last in the line of that noble family, who held the post until January 1778 when he died aged seventy-eight.

The Grand Lodge of Scotland, paid their respects on the announcement of his death, convening a funeral lodge: Four hundred brethren paid tribute to the great man.

William Shakespeare: Freemason or Not?

William Shakespeare; considered by many to be one of England’s finest writers.

In Freemasonry, the number 3 is important, so is the letter T, which has three points, and the word for the number 3 begins with the letter T.   

William Shakespeare’s monument located in Westminster Abbey, emphasises the number 3.

  • Three line inscription at the top.
  • Three books in the middle.
  • Three heads at the bottom.

The inscription upon the monument was written by Alexander Pope (Poet) and an active Freemason at the time.

The Lord Protector and Rosslyn Chapel

According to the writings of Reverend Dyer, Oliver Cromwell, the Lord Protector of England reigned (1653-1658).  It is said he would roam the lands of England, with his Parliamentary army, during the English Civil War (1642-1649) causing much damage to papist churches.  Yet when he came across Rosslyn Chapel, not so much as a scratch was laid upon this building.  It is said Oliver Cromwell was a senior Freemason of high standard, and Rosslyn Chapel was a Masonic Shrine.

In 1650, General Monk’s forces utterly destroyed Rosslyn Castle, and yet again Rosslyn Chapel was left untouched.  Had the chapel been viewed as Catholic, it would surely have been destroyed, as it was Rosslyn Chapel was a shrine.

Numerous Masonic graves can be found in the graveyard, many sporting the symbol (pick and shovel) of the Royal Arch Degree, and the (skull and crossbones), the Templar symbol of resurrection.

William Saint Clair

The Saint Clairs of Roslin, often spelt Rosslyn held a connection which lasted for some 300 years, with the Freemasons of Scotland.

King James II

In 1441, King James II appointed William Saint Clair, Earl of Orkney and Caithness, as Patron and Protector of Scotland’s Freemasons, an office which became hereditary one for the family.  With the death of William Saint Clair in 1484, the office of hereditary patron, was passed down to his descendants.

Rosslyn Chapel

In the year 1446, a founding charter was received from Rome, allowing for the construction of Rosslyn Chapel: Collegiate Church of St. Mathew, the family church of the St.Clairs.

William St.Clair spent four years exploring French Cathedrals and their gothic design, for the design of Rosslyn Chapel.  Then he invited skilled stonemasons from across Europe to come to Scotland, and build the chapel dedicated to the Knights Templar.

According to Scottish tradition, its kings exercised the right in nominating office-bearers to the Freemasons craft.  Only one king neglected to carry out the orders.  First, he be King James VI of Scotland (1567-1603) and carried out his duties, and then as King James I of England (1603-1625), during which time he omitted to carry out his duties.

William St.Clair died in 1484, the office of hereditary Patron was passed down through the family timeline, to the next living descendant.

Around 1600, Freemasons found they were without Protector, and duly appointed William Saint Clair of Roslin, who presided over the order until 1630 when he went to Ireland.  A charter was issued, granting his son Sir William Saint Clair to take over his position in Scotland, and signed off by Masters and Wardens of Scottish Lodges.  Over the next hundred years, the craft continued to flourish, in terms agreed between the Laird of Roslin and Freemasons of Scotland.

The year was 1736 and William Saint Clair to whom the Hereditary Protectorship had descended by right of succession, had no children, and feared the Office of Grand Master, should not become vacant upon his death. 

Accordingly, thirty-two representatives from Edinburgh Lodges assembled, on the 30th November 1736, where their current leader, resigned his post, making way for the election of a new Grand Master.  William Saint Clair was chosen as the new Grand Master in 1737, the last in the line of that noble family, who held the post until January 1778 when he died aged seventy-eight.

The Grand Lodge of Scotland, paid their respects on the announcement of his death, convening a funeral lodge: Four hundred brethren paid tribute to the great man.

Freemason: Edward Jenner

Edward_Jenner

Freemason: Edward Jenner

Edward Jenner, the son of Rev Stephen Jenner was born on the 17th May 1749 in Berkeley, Gloucestershire.  Aged just five he became orphaned, and went to live with his older brother.  His early schooling, showed young Edward had a deep interest in science and nature.

When Edward was 14, he became an apprentice to one Daniel Ludlow, the County Surgeon in Sodbury, for a period of seven years.  In 1764 he began an apprenticeship with George Harwicke, where he learnt about surgical and medical practices.

In 1770 aged 21, Jenner became a student under John Hunter, a famous surgeon in his time at St.George’s Hospital in London.  He was well known, and a well respected Biologist and Anatomist, also known as an experimental scientist.

Whilst under tutorage of John Hunter, Jenner studied geology, and carried out experiments on human blood.  It was during this time, he devised an improved method for preparation of medicine known as “Tartar Emetic” (Potassium Antimony Tartrate).

Edward Jenner returned to Berkeley to practice medicine, following the death of John Hunter the Scottish surgeon and friend in October 1793.

Jenner was elected as a “Fellow of the Royal Society” in 1788, following his publication, based upon his study of the much misunderstood life of a “Cuckoo.”  Where upon he undertook experiments, dissected it, and gave his personal thoughts.

In 1792, Edward Jenner earned his MD status, from the University of St.Andrews.

Smallpox was a natural disease, which appeared in Europe during the Middle Ages.

In the 18th century, smallpox was known to kill some 400,000 people per year, some of those who survived, were blinded or badly scarred.

The word variola was a commonly used term when referring to smallpox, as introduced by Bishop Marius of Avenches, Switzerland in AD 570.  Derived from the latin word varius, which meant “stained” or varus which meant “mark on the skin.”

The term small pockes, used in 15th century England was to distinguish the disease from syphilis, known as the great pockes.

If we go back to 430 BC, it was common knowledge that survivors of smallpox, became immune to the disease, and they would nurse the afflicted.

In medieval times, many remedies were attempted:  Dr Sydenham (1624-1689), treated his patients by forbidding a fire to be lit, windows wide open day and night, no bed clothes above the waist, and the patient would consume twelve small bottles of beer, every twenty-four hours.

However the most successful way for early doctors, in combating smallpox before the discovery of vaccination (Vaccine: A substance made from the germs that cause the disease, which is given to people to prevent them getting the disease) was inoculation (Injecting a micro-organism, bacteria, to protect one against the disease.  The word is derived from the Latin inoculare, which meant to graft).

Inoculation; saw subcutaneous instillation of the smallpox disease into a non-immune person, by using a wet lancet with fresh matter from an infected smallpox sufferer.

On the 17th April 1722, two daughters of the Princess of Wales were treated this way, and the procedure received acceptance by the Royal Family.

This form of treatment carried some risks, yet it was better than doing nothing, as thousands died.  It is believed only 2-3% of treated patients died, or went on to suffer from other diseases, like tuberculosis and syphilis.

In 1796 Jenner, made his first steps in the eradication of the smallpox disease, which had been the scourge of mankind for centuries.

He deduced that cowpox, a disease often caught by dairymaids, protected one from the more serious disease of smallpox.

Sarah Nelms, a young dairymaid had cowpox lesions on her hands and arms, and using matter from her lesions, inoculated James Phipps.  Nine days later he was cold and lacked appetite, and on the tenth day was better.  A few months later he inoculated the boy once again, but this time with smallpox lesions.

Smallpox did not develop, proving that cowpox had indeed protected him against the infection.

He sent a paper to the Royal Society in 1797, describing his findings, but they rejected it.  In 1798, Jenner knew his theory and practical application had merit, and so published a book on his findings.  “An Inquiry into the Causes and Effects of the Variolae Vaccinae.”

Part one, consisted of details regarding the origin of cowpox, as a disease of horses, and transmitted to cows… yet the theory was rejected.  Part Two, contained critical observations, related to his tests.  Part Three, was a discussion into the pros and cons of his findings.

In 1799, Dr George Pearson and Dr William Woodville supported his vaccination, which was undertaken and distributed to their patients.  His vaccination spread rapidly through England, and by 1800 had reached much of Europe.

Dr John Haygarth received vaccine from Edward Jenner in 1800, which he sent to Benjamin Waterhouse a physics professor at Harvard University.  He in turn introduced it into New England, and Thomas Jefferson tried it in Virginia, which led to the creation of the “National Vaccine Institute” in the United States of America.

In 1802 Edward Jenner received the sum of £10,000 from the British Parliament for his work on vaccination, and in 1806 received a further £20,000 for his work on microbiology.

On the 30th December 1802, he became a Master Mason at the “Lodge of Faith and Friendship.”  From 1812-1813 he was appointed and served as “Worshipful Master of Royal Berkeley Lodge of Faith and Friendship.”

In 1803 he became involved with the Jennerian Institution, a society whose aim it was to promote vaccination to eradicate smallpox.  In 1808, the society was re-named and became the “National Vaccine Establishment.”

In 1821, he was appointed Physician to King George IV, and made Mayor of Berkeley and Justice of the Peace.

In 1788 Edward Jenner married Catherine Kingscote, and they had four children.  They lived in Chantry House, and in the garden he vaccinated the poor for free.

His family was shattered in 1810, when son Edward died of Tuberculosis, followed by Mary and his wife in 1815.  In 1820 he suffered a stroke, from which he recovered.  On the 23rd January 1823 he visited his final patient, and on the 25th January was found with his right side paralysed.  On the very next day; 26th January 1823, aged 73 Edward Jenner died from an apparent stroke.

He was laid to rest with his parents, wife and children, near the altar of Berkeley Church.

The early works by Edward Jenner on the study of smallpox, and its connection with cowpox had laid the foundation, which would allow future doctors and scientists to come up with a cure for this disease which was known to have taken the lives of thousands…

Rosicrucian Order: Thutmoses III

Thutmoses III

Egyptian Pharaoh: Thutmoses III

Thutmoses III, considered a military genius of his time, and a skilled warrior King, captured some 350 sites during his rule.  He conquered much of the east from Euphrates to Nubia during his seventeen years of military expeditions.

Thutmoses III-warrior

Thutmoses III the Warrior

According to Rosicrucian writings, Thutmoses III gave up a life of warfare when he had a spiritual reformation, and the warrior King turned to spiritual teachings.  These teachings are believed to be the foundation of the Rusicrucian Order.

Avatars like Thutmoses III were known to pass down spiritual doctrines and moral codes as a guide for humanity, to be used in communion with Cosmic illumination.  These enlightened bearers of legend, torchbearers of the Great Light, illuminating the world through history’s darkest periods.  The initiation process; the awakening of individuals spiritual being.

Thutmoses III directed the schools of Karnak, known as the mystery schools into a single order.  When his great grandson ruled, monotheism was introduced into Ancient Egypt, thus inspiring an artistic revolution.

Most early writings of Egypt, come by way of Greek writers.  Philosophers and Mathematicians like Thales and Pythagoras who travelled to Egypt and gained wisdom from Egyptian High Priests.

Around AD640 an invasion of Islam led to the translation of many Greek and Roman works into Arabic.  Many Arab historians gained exclusive access to indigenous stories and oral history.

Rosicrucians - Rose Cross

The Cross and Rose

The Rosicrucian Order; AMORC known as the Ancient Mystical Order Rosae Crucis in its latin form, translates to; Ancient Mystical Order of the Rose Cross.  The Rose Cross symbol predates Christianity.  The cross represents the human body, and the rose represents the individual’s unfolding consciousness.

Rosicrucian Order history breaks into two classifications; traditional and chronological.  Traditional history consists of mystical allegories and legends passed down by word and mouth over the centuries.  The Chronical accounts consist of specific dates and variable facts.

The Rosicrucian Movement = The Roscrucian Order, has its roots embedded in mystery traditions, philosophy Egyptian myths.

The Order’s first member students met in old temples, where they would be iniated into the order’s great mysteries.  Roscrucians believe that the Giza pyramids were not exclusively built as tombs for the pharaohs, but were for study and mystical initiation.

Pharaoh Thutmoses III, ruler of Egypt from 1500 to 1447BC, created the first esoteric school of iniates founded on principles, similar to the current Rosicrucian Order.

Decades later the Pharaoh Amenhotep IV was also iniated into the secret school.  An enlightened Amenhotep led Egypt’s religion and philosophy in a new direction.  He established a religion designed to recognise the Aton, the Solar Disk, being the symbol of sole deity. The foundation of life, the symbol of Light – Truth – Joy.  Thus, Amenhotep became Akhnaton.

Earlier religion would later rear its head, mystical ideas were part of human consciousness, with a flame that would never be extinguished.

Some centuries later, Greek Philosophers; Thales and Pythagoras, Plotinus the Roman philosopher were among others who journeyed to Egypt, to be iniated into the mystery schools.  They then brought what they had learned to the Western World, which eventually grew into the Rosicrucian Order.

During the time of Charlemagne (742-814) French philosopher Arnaud introduced mystical teaching into France, which would spread across much of Western Europe.  Throughout medieval Europe mystical knowledge was couched in symbolism or disguised and hidden troubadour love songs, formularies of Alchemists, symbolical system of Qabala, and rituals associated with the Orders of Knighthood.

As medieval Europe lay in darkness, Arab civilisations preserved mystical teachings from ancient world; Alexandra library among others.  Important preserved subjects; philosophy, medicine, mathematics and alchemy.

Alchemy the art of transmutation came via the Greeks of Alexandria, and then introduced it to the Arabs, who transmitted this art a forerunner of chemistry to Europe.  Alchemists played a major part in the Rosicrucian Orders early history.  Many alchemists interest lay with making gold.  European alchemists and Knights Templar linked to the Arab civilisation during the crusades brought back much wisdom to Western Europe.  European transcendental alchemists; mystics and philosophers sought to change the human character full of wisdom in the individual.

For several centuries the Rosicrucian Order found themselves suppressed, freedom of thought could not be openly expressed.  They were forced into hiding, taking different names, yet their activities continued.

For it was on the 3rd March 1623, the people of Paris in France were faced with mysterious posters upon their city walls, declaring the existence of the Brotherhood of the Rose Cross.  They feared mention of this sect, member they had never seen.  They believed these Rosicrucians had the ability to transform themselves from one place to another by thought.

The renowned Sir Francis Bacon, directed the Rosicrucian Order in their great renewal in England and the continent, in the mid 1500’s to early 1600’s.

In the late 17th century a colony of Rosicrucians established Rosicrucian arts and sciences in America.  In 1694 these Rosicrucian settlers journeyed across the Atlantic Ocean from Europe.  They landed in Philadelphia and later moved to Ephrata in Pennsylvania.

These Rosicrucians contributed in America’s early growth in the fields of printing, philosophy, sciences and the arts.  Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson and Thomas Paine were linked to the Rosicrucian Order.

In 1909 U.S. businessman H.Spencer Lewis was iniated into the Rosicrucian Order in France, and was given the responsibility of renewing the Order’s activity in America.  Spencer became their president with headquarters in New York in 1915.  In 1927 the Order moved its U.S. headquarters to San Jose in California.

Rosicrucian Orders history, has seen many prominent people, with science and the arts play their part in their history:

Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519)
Francis Bacon (1561-1626)
Blaise Pascal (1623-1662)
Isaac Newton (1642-1727)
Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790)
Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826)
Michael Faraday (1743-1826)
Claude Debussy (1862-1918)
Edith Piaf (1916-1963)

This being a small number of those actively involved.

Rosicrucian legacy holds a vast collection of knowledge, that which had been handed down year by year.

(Image) The Cross and Rose: You Tube
(Image) Thutmoses III: Ancient Egypt
(Image) Thutmoses the Warrior: Ancient Egypt

My Life: Robert Moray

Robert Moray

Sir Robert Moray

Military Man – Scientist – French Spy

Royal Society Founder – Freemason

Robert Moray was born on the 10th March 1609 at Craigie, Perthshire, Scotland.  The son of Perthshire laird; Sir Mungo Moray, and his mother the daughter of George Halket of Pitfirran, Dumferline.

Moray was educated firstly at St.Andrew’s University in Scotland, and continued his education in France.

In 1633, Moray served with the Scots Guards of Louis XIII.  He became a spy for Cardinal Richelieu.  In 1638, the General Assembly of Scotland’s Covanters rebelled against Charles I.  Richelieu promoted Moray to Lieutenant Colonel in Louis Scots Guards, and sent him to Scotland.  His commission was to recruit Scottish soldiers.  He also had a personal objective, assisting fellow Scots in their dispute with Charles, which would cause trouble for England.

Moray, appointed quartermaster – general of Covanter’s Army in 1640, marched south with Scottish forces, and defeated Earl Stafford’s Army at Newcastle.

On the 20th May 1641 Robert Moray was initiated as a Freemason in Newcastle by General Alexander Hamilton, commander of the Covenanter’s and John Mylne, Master Mason to King Charles I.

By 1643, acted as liaison officer between Covenanter’s Army and Charles I from his Oxford home.  On the 10th January 1643, Charles knighted him, and upon return to France, he was promoted to full Colonel of the Scots Guards.  On the 24th November 1643, was captured by the Duke of Bavaria and held prisoner for eighteen months.  On the 28th April 1645, freed after ransom of £16,500 was paid by the French for his release.

Following the execution of Charles I. Moray opened talks at the bequest of the Earl of Lauderdale, that saw Charles II be crowned King of the Scots at Scone in 1650. Charles campaign against the English and Cromwell lay in shatters at the “Battle of Dunbar.”

Charles had no option but to flee to the safety of France, leaving Moray in Scotland.

In 1652 Robert Moray married Sophia Lindsey and, in the July, returned to Scotland, to drum up support… pushing that Charles should sit on the English throne, it was to be a failed attempt.  Sophia, Robert Morays wife died on the 2nd January 1653, in child birth.

Cromwell defeated Scottish forces in July 1654 at the “Battle of Loch Garry.”  Moray was accused of betrayal towards the King, and cleared of any wrong doing upon appeal.  With this chapter in his life over, returned to France and would never remarry.

Aged forty-six, Moray resigned from the Scots Guards, and spent his time in Maastricht studying science.

In the September, attended Charles in Paris, where he took part in negotiations to have him take his rightful place on England’s throne.  In late June of 1660 the King returned to England, with Moray following up at a later time.  Charles greeted his friend warmly, and gave him quarters in the Palace of Whitehall, near Horse Guards Gate.

Following Charles II’s restoration Moray became one of the Royal Society’s founders, and their first official meeting was held on the 28th November 1660 at Gresham College, Bishopsgate, London, with Moray as its first president.

In February of 1661, Moray became a Privy Councillor and later Lord of the Exchequer.

On the 4th July 1673, Robert Moray died at his London residence, and buried in Westminster Abbey by order of the King.

Benjamin Franklin: Freemason & President

BenjaminFranklin960

Benjamin Franklin was one of America’s greatest diplomats and hero of The War of Independence, born on the 17thJanuary 1706 in Boston, Massachusetts, son of Josiah Franklin soap maker, and his mother Abiah Folger.

It was his parents wish, that Benjamin should enter the church.  However, restraints on family finances saw him attend Boson Latin School for only two years, which meant he could not graduate.  Left school aged ten to work in his father’s soap and candle business.

Aged 13, Benjamin undertook the post of an apprentice to his brother James who ran a printing business, and founder of the 1721 New-England Courant Newspaper.

Benjamin wanted to write for the paper, but James said no.  So Benjamin did it anyway in defiant of his brother, by taking a pseudonym; Mrs Silence Dogood … they became a hit amongst the readers.  When he admitted to his brother it was he writing the letters, James became very jealous of the attention he had received.

James got thrown into jail for taking on the established Puritan Preachers on the controversial subject of smallpox, leaving Benjamin to run the paper.

Instead of thanking his brother for keeping the paper going whilst he was in prison, James made Benjamin’s life a living hell, until 1723 when he walked out.

Aged just 17, Benjamin went to Philadelphia, and worked in the printing industry, but it was Governor Sir William Keith of Pennsylvania who suggested he should go to London, where he worked as a typesetter.  Aged 20, he returned to Philadelphia with the help of Thomas Denham, a merchant who employed him.

The Junto group was formed in 1727 by Benjamin Franklin, consisting of artisans and tradesman intending to improve their community.

The exact date when Benjamin Franklin was initiated as a Freemason is unknown, but believed to be in the February of 1731, at St. John’s Lodge in Philadelphia.

Reading and discussions were their main aim.  As books were expensive, so the subscription library came into force.  This led to the founding of the “Library Company of Philadelphia” in 1731 by Franklin.  In 1739, books were housed at the State House of Pennsylvania … now we refer to it as Independence Hall.  All that changed in 1791 when a building was specially built for the purpose, containing rare books, pamphlets, 160,000 manuscripts and some 75,000 graphical items.

In 1728, Franklin set up a printing business with Hugh Meredith; The Pennsylvania Gazette, it was a forum by which he could comment on local reforms.    Over a period of time, he gained the respect of his local community.

In 1731, Benjamin Franklin was initiated into the Masonic Lodge.  In 1732 went on to publish the first German language newspaper, and in 1734 was appointed Grand Master of Pennsylvania’s Masonic Lodge, and that same year published the “Masonic Book in the America’s.”

Aged just 17 in 1723 Benjamin Franklin proposed to 15-year-old Deborah Read, but the offer of marriage was declined by her mother.  Deborah went on to marry John Rodgers, who accrued debts, and fled to Barbados to avoid prosecution, and being flung into jail.

In 1728 Benjamin Franklin fathered a child named William … mother not known.

Due to bigamy laws at that time, Deborah was not free to take Benjamin Franklin as her husband. So it was that Franklin went on to establish what was known as a common-law marriage on 1stSeptember 1730.

They had three children; “William, Franklin’s illegitimate son, Francis Folger Franklin born October 1732, who died aged four of smallpox.  Sarah Franklin born in 1743, who went on to marry Richard Bache, and they had seven children.

Along with running a printing shop, they ran a store, selling soap and fabric which Deborah was responsible for, and a book store run by Benjamin.

In 1733 Franklin published “Poor Richards Almanack” under the name of Richard Saunders, containing witty aphorisms and lively writings.

Around 1735, Benjamin Franklin was elected Secretary, a post he held until 1738.  He belonged to a committee responsible for the drafting of Lodge Laws.

In 1736, he organised Philadelphia’s Union Fire Company, the first of its kind in the city.  Then in 1752 he helped to found the Philadelphia Contribution for Insurance Against Loss by Fire.

For it was in 1743 Franklin invented a heat-efficient stove, and named it the Franklin Stove, to warm houses more efficiently.  He never took out a patent on its design, claiming it was for the people, to help improve society.  Then in 1749, Franklin retired from printing and concentrated his efforts on science and innovations, which led him down the route of electricity in the early 1750’s.

Politics introduced Franklin into new areas, and in 1757 went to England to represent Pennsylvania, over who should represent the Colony and its descendants.

William Franklin Benjamin’s illegitimate son studied law in the early part of the 1760’s.  He like his father before him also fathered an illegitimate son; William Temple Franklin born 22ndFebruary 1762, who went into care.  Later that year he married Elizabeth Downes, upon passing the bar, and was appointed Royal Governor of New Jersey in 1763.

America opposed the Stamp Act in 1765, had it not been for his testimony to Parliament which persuaded members to cancel the said act.

Benjamin Franklin’s wife died in 1774 of a stroke, whilst he was in England, he had often begged her to come to England, but she feared sea travel.  Franklin went on to stay in England as a Colonial representative until 1775.

Benjamin Franklin is remembered as one of the greatest of the Founding Fathers of the United States, having signed all original founding documents: (Declaration of Independence – Treaty of Paris – U.S. Constitution).

Benjamin Franklin played a major role in America’s development:

  • Unifying the colonists in their rebellion against England.
  • Philosophy concerning the rights of mankind.
  • Facilitating the American Revolution.

Benjamin Franklin, member of secret groups, in America, France and England, the main players of the War of Independence.

  • Master of the Masonic Lodge of Philadelphia.
  • Master of the Nine Sisters Lodge of France, from which came the French Revolution.
  • England’s Hell-Fire club, a political and sexual club founded by Francis Dashwood.

Franklin was Deputy Postmaster General for North America, and agent to the Pennsylvania Assembly, who resided in London, England for sixteen years.

Franklin became great friends with Francis Dashwood, Lord Despencer, and became a regular guest at the Dashwood estate of West Wycombe Park.

Some six miles from the Dashwood estate, on the banks of the River Thames, close to Marlow, laid the ruins of Medmenham Abbey.  A former Cistercian Order of Monks, founded it in 1145, the perfect location for the Hell-Fire club, located in a grove of trees, and almost concealed from sight.

The Roman Room within the Abbey housed indecent Roman frescoes, walls covered in famous English prostitutes, complimented with Egyptian gods and goddesses in wall niches.

Around 1752, Dashwood opened the Medmenham Monks Society, later known as the Hell-Fire club.  For his monks, there be nuns…  Many were prostitutes, other’s local women who craved excitement, but mostly ladies of society.

The order consisted of two groups of monks; the superiors and inferior members.  The Hell-Fire club was frequented by many important people, with combined power, they could control governments.

It was for this reason Benjamin Franklin became a member around 1764.

Franklin had many friends in England, but his loyalty to America, and the corruption in English politics, made him question, whether America should break their connection with England.  Then it came to his attention that one Thomas Hutchinson, thought to be working for the American people as an English-appointed Governor of Massachusetts, but in truth still worked for King George III of England.

Declaration of Independence

Shortly after his return to America, Franklin was elected to the Second Continental Congress, and was involved in drafting the Declaration of Independence, which was signed by 56 representatives including himself on 4thJuly 1776.

The French Government signed a Treaty of Alliance in 1778 with the American’s, and Franklin went on to sign the Treaty of Paris in 1783.

Upon his return home, Franklin was honoured for his works; he became President of the Executive Council of Pennsylvania, a delegate of the Constitutional Convention, signing the Constitution.

One of his final acts he will go down in history for; the anti-slavery treaty of 1789.

Benjamin Franklin, a loyal subject to his country, fought for what he believed in, and died aged 84 on the 17thApril 1790.  It is said 20,000 people attended his funeral.  His legacy still lives on…

Benjamin Franklin’s Masonic Timeline:

On the 6thJanuary 1705 Benjamin Franklin was born in Boston Massachusetts.

Franklin organized the Leathern Apron Club in 1727, a secret society in Philadelphia.

1730-1731: In the February he was initiated into Philadelphia’s Saint John’s Lodge.

In the June of 1732, drafted a set of By-Laws for Saint John’s Lodge.

On the 24thJune 1732 was elected Junior Grand Warden and Grand Master of Pennsylvania.

In the August of 1734, advertised the reprint of Anderson’s Constitutions of the Free Masons, the first Masonic book printed in America.

During Franklin’s administration as Grand Master 1734-5, The State House and Independence Hall. According to the old Masonic and family traditions the cornerstone was laid by him and the Brethren of Saint John’s Lodge.

According to letter written by Franklin on the 13thApril 1738 to his mother.  He is reportedly have stated that Freemasons have no principles or practices that are inconsistent with religion.

On the 25thMay 1743 visited Saint John’s Boston Lodge.

On the 29thAugust 1749 the Tun Tavern Lodge petitioned Provincial Grand Master Franklin for a Deputation under his sanction.  On the 13thMarch 1750 he was deposed as Provincial Grand Master and immediately appointed Deputy Grand Master by William Allen, Provincial Grand Master.

On the 12thMarch 1752, was appointed on Committee for building the Freemason’s Lodge in Philadelphia, and on the 25thOctober visited the Tun Tavern Lodge.

On the 24thJune 1755 played a prominent part in the Grand Anniversary and Dedication of the Freemason’s Lodge in Philadelphia, the first Masonic building in America.

In 1760 became Provincial Grand Master of Philadelphia.

On the 17thNovember 1760 present at the Crown & Anchor in London, England’s Grand Lodge.

In 1776 Benjamin Franklin became affiliated with Masonic Lodges in France.

On the 7thApril 1778, he assisted at the initiation of Voltaire in the Nine Sisters Lodge, a famous lodge in Paris.

On the 28thNovember 1778 officiated at the Lodge of Sorrou, the Masonic Funeral Service.

Benjamin Franklin was elected Worshipful Master on the 21stMay 1779, a post he held for two years.

In 1782 elected Venerable Worshipful Master of Loge des Neuf Soeurs, Grand Orient de Paris.

On the 7thJuly became member of the Respectable Lodge de Saint Jean de Jerusalem.

On the 24thApril 1785, elected Venerable d’Honneur of Respectable Lodge de Saint Jean de Jerusalem.

In the 1785 elected honorary member of Loge des Ron Amis, Good Friends, Rouen France.

On the 19thApril 1906, memorial services were held at his grave side in Christ Church yard, Philadelphia by officers of the Pennsylvania Lodge.  The occasion being to observe the two hundredth anniversary of the birth of Benjamin Franklin.

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George Washington: Freemason & President

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George Washington: Freemason & U.S.  President

George Washington was born on the 22ndFebruary 1732, to parents Augustine and Mary Washington at Bridges Creek, Westmorland County, Virginia. He was the eldest of six children.    His great-grandfather John Washington, a former clergyman was based in the County of Essex in England.  He took his family, seeking pastures new, leaving his native land, and in 1657 settled in Virginia, America.

On the 12thApril 1742, Augustine Washington, George Washington’s father, dies at the age of 49.

The young George Washington, was taken under the wing of his elder half-brother Lawrence, fourteen years his senior.  Lawrence suffered from tuberculosis, and they sailed to Barbados, seeking a cure, but things took a turn for the worst, when he contracted and died from the smallpox disease in the July of 1752.  George Washington inherited Lawrence’s 2,500-acre plantation of Mount Vernon.  He resided at Mount Vernon and managed the plantation, until Anne, Lawrence’s widow died in 1761, where upon he assumed full ownership of the property.

George Washington’s early Masonic Steps:

  • On the 1stSeptember 1752:  First recorded meeting of Fredericksburg Masonic Lodge in Virginia.
  • On the 4thNovember 1752: Washington is initiated and entered as an Apprentice Freemason (First Degree)
  • On the 3rdMarch 1753: Washington reached position Degree of Fellow Craft, Freemason (Second Degree)
  • On the 4thAugust 1753: Washington reached the position Sublime Degree of Master Mason (Third Degree)

On the 15thMarch 1754 Major Washington was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel of the Virginian Regiment, upon the death of Colonel Joshua Fry.

On the 28thMay 1754 Militia forces under the command of Washington, clashed with French forces in Ohio Valley.  It is thought these first shots, were known to have started the French and Indian War.  Having been pulled into battle with French forces around the 3rdJuly, Washington ordered his men to build a rough stockade and named it Fort Necessity, located near present day Farmington.  They were overwhelmed and surrendered the fort, and retreated back to Virginia.

The Battle of Monongahela of the 9thJuly 1755 at Braddock Pennsylvania where French and Indian forces defeated the vanguard of the British Army.  Commanding Officer, one General Braddock is mortally wounded, and Washington leads remaining force back to Virginia.

Washington looking for recognition for his military services in western Pennsylvania takes leave of his command from 4thFebruary to 25thMarch

and travels to Boston with George Mercer meeting with Governor Shirley.  Returning to Virginia on 28thMarch, Washington assumes his command of the Militia, and spends much of 1756-57 there on active duty.

In the latter months of 1758, the General Forbes expedition with Washington as his aide-de-camp expel French forces from the forks of the Ohio River.  The French burn Fort Duquesne withdraw and head north.

On the 6thJanuary 1759 Washington takes a wife, marrying the wealthy widow; Martha Dandridge Custis, becoming stepfather to her two children; Jack and Martha, as they settle down in Mount Vernon.

On the 12thJanuary 1759, Washington becomes an elected representative for Fairfax County and as such attends the House of Burgesses, in Williamsburg, Virginia.

Washington’s views started changing, and as a member of the Virginia House of Burgesses, stood up and opposed the Stamp Act and Townshend Acts.

On the 3rdOctober 1763, Washington takes up the post of Warden of Pohick Anglican Church, near his home of Mount Vernon.

On the 16thJuly 1765 Washington is re-elected to the House of Burgesses for Fairfax County.

The year 1774 were changing times in Washington’s political views, as he shook off his lifelong loyalties to Britain.  On the 1stAugust he receives his membership of the First Virginia Provincial Convention at Williamsburg.  That same year elected leader of seven delegates to the first Continental Congress in Philadelphia.

In the April of 1775 confrontation with the British quickly turned to armed conflicts, with the Battles of Lexington and Concord in Massachusetts.  George Washington had much experience of being a commander, and was well versed in military matters.  So, it was on the 15thJune, he was elected Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army.  On the 3rdJuly Washington assumes command of the siege of the British Army in Boston, which ends with a U.S. victory on the 17thMarch 1776.

The Battle of Long Island, saw the U.S. Continental Army being beaten by English forces on the 27thAugust 1776.  Washington chose to retreat with his army across the East River… for they could fight another day.

Around the 17thNovember 1776, British forces captured Fort Lee and Fort Washington along the Hudson River.  At the same time Washington moves his forces across New Jersey towards Pennsylvania. With the British Army capturing Ft. Lee and Ft. Washington along the Hudson River, Washington begins moving his army across New Jersey toward Pennsylvania.

On the 26thDecember Washington crosses the Delaware River defeat the British at the Battle of Trenton.

On the 3rdJanuary 1777 Washington defeats Lord Cornwallis at the “Battle of Princeton,” New Jersey. The British Army is forced to retreat to New York for the winter months.  On the 11thSeptember British forces are victorious at the “Battle of Brandywine.”  The British Army occupies Philadelphia on the 26thSeptember, and on the 26thSeptember, and Washington is defeated at the “Battle of Germantown.”

The Battle of Monmouth Courthouse is fought on the 28thJune 1778 without a clear victor, as British Army withdraws on the 29thheading towards New York City.  On the 28thDecember Washington meets with Congress in Philadelphia looking to raise support for his army.

On the 19thAugust 1781, news reaches Washington of U.S. victories in the southern states.  With General Cornwallis trapped near Yorktown, in the August, barely holding out until the 19thOctober when they were forced to surrender.

On the 23rdMarch 1782, Washington receives an embroidered silk Masonic apron from Elkanah Watson and Francis Corentin Cossoul commercial agents in Nantes, France.  Washington wore this apron at the 1793 U.S. Capitol cornerstone ceremony.

The Treaty of Paris is formally signed on the 30thSeptember 1783, bringing to an end the American War for Independence.

On the 17thAugust 1784, Lafayette visits and presents Washington with a Masonic Apron at his Mount Vernon home.

At the U.S. Constitutional Convention held in Philadelphia on the 25thSeptember 1787, Washington is elected president of the convention.

A committee from Alexandria Lodge № 39 asked Washington to serve as “Charter Master” of the lodge as it changes from Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania to Grand Lodge of Virginia, in the spring of 1788.  The charter is approved on the 28thApril with George Washington as the lodge’s Worshipful Master.

On the 7thJanuary 1789, George Washington is elected as the First President of the United States of America, and on the 30thApril is inaugurated as President of the United States in New York, using a Bible from St.John’s Lodge No.1.  Oath of office is administered by Chancellor and Grand Master of New York.

On the 25thAugust 1789, Mary Washington, a proud mother of President Washington, dies at her home in Fredericksburg, aged 80 years.

On the 17thAugust 1790, Washington, sailed up from New York City, arriving at Newport, Rhode Island, congratulating people on becoming the thirteenth state.

On the 5thDecember 1792 President Washington is re-elected and serves a second term as President of the United States, and his inauguration takes place on the 4thMarch 1793 in Philadelphia.

Cornerstone Ceremony of 18thSeptember 1793:
Three Masonic Lodges = Cornerstone of U.S. Capitol

  • Potomac Lodge № 9 and
  • Federal Lodge №
  • Alexandria Lodge №

Items Used at the Cornerstone Ceremony:

  • Silver Trowel with Ivory handle made by John Duffy owned by Alexandria-Washington Lodge №
  • Wood T-Square and Level own by Alexandria-Washington Lodge №
  • Marble Gavel with wood handle, made by John Duffy owned by Potomac Lodge № 5, Washington D.C.

It is believed that Washington wore the Watson-Cassoul apron sent to him in 1783 to the ceremony.

On the 6thOctober 1794, at Bedford, Pennsylvania, President Washington takes to the field as Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces. The militia ha gathered there to suppress the “Whiskey Rebellion” in western Pennsylvania.

On the 18thAugust 1795, the U.S. Senate creates the Jay Treaty with Great Britain. This treaty insures the United States will remain neutral in the war between the Republic of France and the European monarchies.

On the 4thJuly 1798, with the threat of war looming ever closer with France, President. Adams appoints Washington as Commander-in-Chief of the Armies.

In the August of 1798, the Rev. G.W. Snyder of the Reformed Church, in Fredericktown, Maryland, sends Washington a letter regarding the Illuminati and Freemasonry in the United States. He encloses Proofs of a Conspiracy against all the Religions and Governments of Europe, carried on in the Secret.  Meetings of Free-Masons, Illuminati etc.

On the 14thDecember 1799, a tired George Washington’s life was nearing its end, and at 10.20pm he died.  On the 18thDecember, Washington is buried at Mount Vernon with Anglican Christian Burial Rite accompanied by a Masonic funeral ceremony. On the 22ndMay 1802, wife of George Washington and first President of the United States, one Martha Washington dies at the family home of Mount Vernon.

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Scotland’s Freemasonry

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William St.Clair

Scottish Freemasonry started with the building of Rosslyn Chapel to the south of Edinburgh.

The Evidence:

  • Rosslyn has links to the Jewish Temple through the Knights Templar and Freemasonry.
  • If one looks at the ground plan of Rosslyn Chapel, it is a copy of Herod’s Temple in Jerusalem.
  • Within Rosslyn Chapel, there exists a stone document showing a First Degree Ceremony conducted by a Knights Templar.

Carvings within Rosslyn Chapel, were cut first from wood, await inspection by the Master of the Works, then cut in stone.

The lower window located in the chapel’s south-west corner, depicts a Freemasonic First Degree.  The figure shown be of a blind man kneeling between two pillars, with a noose around his neck, and a bible in his left hand.  The rope is held by another wearing the mantle of a Knights Templar.

The Seven Points… A Masonic Ceremony:

  • The man be blindfolded, an unusual form of blind justice.
  • The man kneels down.
  • The man holds a bible, many other figures holding books or scrolls can be found in Rosslyn Chapel.
  • The man has a noose about his neck, the only other figure within the chapel with a noose, is the angel Shemhazai wearing one about his feet.The sins of Shemhazai, caused God to send in the flood.  Shemhazai unable to face God hung himself between heaven and earth.
  • The man placed his feet in the posture used by Masonic candidates.
  • The ceremony takes place between two pillars of Masonic Lodge.
  • The noose being held by a knights Templar.

In 1440 William St. Clair renowned as one of the most powerful men in Scotland.

The building of Rosslyn Chapel was to house the treasures he had inherited from the Templars and establish a seat of spiritual authority to rival King James II who was dabbling in English politics and killed during the War of the Roses.

Formation of the Grand Lodge of Scotland:

1440 Masons given the Mason word by William to preserve the secret of the Templars.

1483 Masonry is starting to spread out as lodges initiate Candidates and give the ‘Mason Word.’

1599 Earliest surviving lodge just minutes from Edinburgh.

1601 James VI made a Mason at Lodge of Scoon and Perth.

1602 William Schaw sets up the modern lodge system in Scotland upon the instructions of James VI.

The Lodges of Scotland affirm William St. Clair of Roslin as hereditary Grand Master Mason of Scotland.

1603 James VI takes Freemasonry to England where he becomes King James I of England.

1641 Sir Robert Moray becomes the first Mason recorded to be born on English soil.

1715 First Jacobite Rising, lodges begin to disclaim their Scottish roots.

1717 Formation of Grand Lodge of London denies Jacobite heritage.

1725 First National Grand Lodge formed in Ireland.

1736 Grand Lodge of Scotland formed as a counter measure to London’s expansion.

William St. Clair of Roslin made First Grand Master Mason of Scotland and signs away his hereditary rights in favour of elected officers.

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