Chartres Cathedral: Sacred Geometry

saint-bernard-of-clairvaux

St.Bernard of Clairvaux

St.Bernard of Clairvaux, the patron saint of the Knights Templar, clearly regarded their architectural skills with much praise, and was particularly impressed by their soaring roofs and arches… With their distinguishing features of Gothic architecture as expressed at Chartres Cathedral and other 12th century French Cathedral’s.

Chartres Cathedral

Chartres Cathedral – France

Contained within the walls of Chartres Cathedral, Ancient Hebrew ciphers were added, spelling out obscure liturgical phrases in key positions, in the buildings structure.  Key designs to religious mysteries.

Similarly, sculptors and glaziers concealed texts about human nature, the past and prophetic scriptures, in its sculptural works and leaded glass.

The French Gothic Cathedral of Chartres contains sacred geometry, as used in its construction…

Chartres Cathedral Labyrinth

The Labyrinth

In the nave of the cathedral, we find a labyrinth on the floor made from white stone, set within dark coloured marble.  The labyrinth measures one tenth of the cathedral’s interior length, which equates to the central point of the buildings geometric construction.

Chartres Cathedral - West Front

West Rose Window – Chartres Cathedral

The diameter of the labyrinth is the same size as the West Rose Window.  The distance from the centre of the west rose window to the floor, is exactly the same as the distance from the centre of the labyrinth to the Cathedral’s west portal wall.

Putting it simply, the West Rose Window and the Labyrinth form a perfect equilateral triangle.

Within the Cathedral, distances between pillars and the length of the nave, transepts and choir, are multiples of the Golden Mean, (The Golden Mean is related to the dimensions of a pentagon, a shape much used in the building of Chartres Cathedral).

The ribs supporting the vaults of the quadrangle units of which the cathedral is composed of, are the shape of the golden triangles.

Chartres - Latin Cross Plan

The grand plan view of Chartres Cathedral is in the design of a Latin Cross.  It symbolizes Light of the Cross, where Spirit and Matter converge.

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Chartres Cathedral: The Last Judgement

Chartres Cathedral

Chartres Cathedral

The Gothic styled cathedral’s originated in 12th century France, during the Knights Templar era.  The Knights Templar, God’s warriors, were formed to protect pilgrims on route to Jerusalem.

This order was formed in 1118, and consisted of nine knights, and became one of the richest and most powerful orders, with the backing of the Pope.  They would build hundreds of Gothic Cathedral’s across Europe, and many still stand to this very day.  These cathedrals with their twin towers faced towards the west, resembling the Temple of Solomon in Jerusalem with its two pillars of Jachin and Boaz.

The Last Judgement

The Last Judgement

When a visitor steps across the threshold and enters the cathedral he would be confronted by “The Last Judgement” displayed at the tympanum.  Here, Jesus is surrounded by four beasts of the Apocalypse, the same beasts as mentioned in John’s Revelations, equated with the four apostles; Mathew, Mark, Luke and John.

The four beasts of the Apocalypse have astrological significance:

  • The beast, with human face is Aquarius (Mathew).
  • The lion is Leo (Mark).
  • The ox is Taurus (Luke).
  • The eagle is Aquila (John).

The zodiac sign Aquila is often replaced with Scorpio.

According to Christian art expressions, Christ is portrayed inside a Vesica Pisces along with four zodiac signs, and his head surrounded by a halo depicting the Sun.  As for the image of Jesus inside the Vesica Pisces, contains at each corner one of the signs of the Apocalypse: Aquarius – Scorpio – Taurus – Leo.

The French Gothic Cathedral of Chartres is one of the oldest Cathedral’s and is aligned to the summer solstice.  At the time of the summer solstice, the sun would shine through the “Saint Apollinaire” window, depicting the Roman sun god; Apollo.

Located within the cathedral, one can find a zodiac, but the practice of astrology is regarded as an act of paganism.  The zodiac connects the signs of Aquarius, Scorpio, Taurus and Leo.

It is believed the four signs of the Apocalypse rise before the sun during the Great Celestial Conjunction at the time of the solstices or equinoxes.  They be the symbols of the true Galactic Cross, determined where the ecliptic and Milky Way cross.

The zodiac within Chartres Cathedral consists of two semi-circles, that intersect forming a Vesica Pisces, an ancient symbol to represent Christ.  Vertically depicted, represents fertility and birth.  Symbolism refers to rebirth.

When Vesica Pisces aligns with Pisces-Virgo axis within the zodiac, Vesica Pisces appears to be associated with Pisces (Christ – the fisherman) and Virgo (Mary – the virgin mother).

The symbolism found within Chartres Cathedral, puts forward the Christian doctrine of End Times, and is not the rebirth of Christ, but rebirth of the Sun!

Chartres Cathedral: The Labyrinth

Chartres Cathedral Labyrinth

Labyrinth

As one gazes upon the beauty of the Gothic styled Chartres Cathedral, built in 12th century France.  One asks what mysteries, what holy designs, will one find?

Located within, upon the stone floor, is an ancient styled Labyrinth, which would have been used by monks for contemplation.

So what is a Labyrinth?

A Labyrinth is a path representing our spiritual journey, with many a twist or a turn, and the walker would find themselves, uncertain where the path was taking them, yet they were never lost.

The Labyrinth has the hand of God, gently guiding us, even though we feel lost or confused, we are being led forward.

As one walks the path to the centre, one walks the way of the world, asking as we walk step by step for God’s forgiveness, for our wrongdoings, and seeking to make amends for our acts.

Upon reaching the centre, it is for us to open ourselves to the love of God, before taking the path back, seeking to follow in the ways of Christ.

The walk of the Labyrinth, gives the walker a chance to seek out how to resolve problems in their lives.  Seeking guidance, times of personal bereavement, or just to walk hand in hand with God.

In its simplest form, a Labyrinth is a path of medication.  You just simply walk it, and allow the mind to be at peace, as the body takes over.

One could describe the Labyrinth, as having three paths:

  • Symbolic path of purgation.
  • Illumination, opening ourselves to the Divine in the centre.
  • Union, is our return path taking the benefits of what we have received, back into our lives.

During the time of the Crusades, Labyrinths were built to provide an alternative, as not everyone could make the pilgrimage to the Holy Land.  The centre of the Labyrinth represented the Holy City of Jerusalem, and became the substituted goal of the journey, for pilgrims.

Chartres Cathedral Labyrinth:

The Labyrinth at Chartres Cathedral, measures forty-two feet in diameter and was built between (1215-1235).  13th century churchmen instructed builders of Chartres, that numbers and symbols were to be used in its design.  The significance of which is drawn from Ancient Greek thoughts; Plato and St.Augustine reflections on the divine order of creation.

The path is laid out in eleven concentric circles intricately woven into a sacred geometric pattern.  It is then surrounded by twenty-eight semi-circular lunations per quadrant, creating a third of the year’s lunar calendar around the Labyrinth’s perimeter.

Knights Templar: The Occult

Baphomet

The Order of the Knights Templar was originally a Gnostic based order that maintained a secrecy of its occult collaboration.  These Templar’s weren’t your average Christians, who obeyed and were loyal to the Pope and Church.

The Templar’s practiced many of their occult practices underground, to avoid interference from the Church.  Saying that they were charged with the act of pagan worship at their trials in the 1300’s which led to thousands being executed, and some burnt at the stake.

As Templar’s became aware of their impending death sentence, some planned their escape, making their departure from the order, and becoming Masons.

Some charges brought forward at the trials of the Knights Templar were false whilst others were accurate.  Evidence was provided of idol worshipping.

Charges against the Order of the Knights Templar:

  • When a new Templar was received into the order, he denied Christ, the Holy Virgin and the saints, an act instigated by those receiving him. He was told Christ was not the true God, that he was a false prophet who had not been crucified for the redemption of the human race, but on account of his sins.  There was therefore no hope of receiving salvation through Christ.  The new member was then made to spit on the crucifix or image of Christ.

 

  • The Templar’s adored idols, with specific mention of a cat and a head of three faces. The head was worshipped as a saviour and venerated as a giver of plenty that could make trees flower and land germinate.  They touched or encircled it with small cords which they wore around their waists.

 

  • That they did not believe in the sacraments and that the Templar priests omitted the words of consecration during mass.

 

  • That they believed that the Grand Master and other leaders could hear their confessions and absolve them from sin, despite the fact that many of the leaders were laymen.

 

  • The Order’s receptors kissed new entrants on the mouth, navel, stomach, buttocks and spine, and acts of homosexuality were encouraged.

 

  • Templar’s sought gain for the Order; lawful or not. Donations to the Order were not used in approved ways, nor were they apportioned to hospitals.

 

  • Chapter meetings and receptions were held in secret at night under heavy guard, and only Templar’s could be present. Brother’s who revealed to an outsider what had occurred were punished by imprisonment or death.

 From “The Trial of the Templar’s” by Malcolm Barber (2006)

 During their time in the Middle-East the Order of the Knights Templar established and maintained contact with mystic sects of different religions and denominations, including sorcerers.

The orders higher echelons acquainted themselves and incorporated into the order beliefs based on mystic teaching of the Cabala, Bogomils and Luciferians, leaving Christianity behind.

In their eyes, Jesus ruled another world, with limited power in this one and Satan was the lord of our world.

The Templar’s revered the idol of Baphomet; a demon with the head of a goat, the symbol of “The Church of Satan.”

Baphomet, the deity worshipped by the Knights Templar, and in Black Magic, the source and creator of evil; the Satanic goat of the witches Sabbath.

During the trials of the Knights Templar, most mentioned worshipping Baphomet.  The idol with a scary looking human head and a long beard with shinning eyes.  Some mentioned human skulls, cat idols and objects of satanic worship.

The demon Baphomet, an object of satanic veneration; having a goat’s head with two faces, a winged body which is female above the waist and male below the waist.

After the confessions in the French Courts, the Pope interrogated seventy-two Templar’s.  They then knelt down before the Pope and asked for forgiveness.

The interrogation of the Templar’s culminated in their dissolution in 1312, and Jacques de Molay, Grand Master of the Order, was burned at the stake in 1314 on charges of heresy.

Templar’s fled for their lives throughout Christendom, some were captured crossing France, Germany and Italy, and others were more fortunate, reaching countries who offered refuge.

Baphomet Image: Grasshopper

Knights Templar and Paris

Ancient Paris

Paris of the Past

Following the historical account of the Knights Templar, it was here on the French soil of Marais, much of their story was played out.

In 1137, King Louis VII of France gave the “Order of the Knights Templar” a house, in the swamp marshland area, in the northern parts of Paris, just outside the city walls.

Large stretches of marshland, remnants of the ancient branch of the River Seine, which once flowed down from Belleville, east of Paris.

Enclos du Temple

Enclos du Temple

In less than a century, these hardy knights had dried out the marshlands, and moved to its north-eastern edge, upon which they built, the “Enclos du Temple,” a fortified compound, consisting of crenellated walls, buttresses, watch towers and a drawbridge.  To accompany the tower, a gothic styled round chapel was built in stages, granted by a papal bull of Pope Honorius in 1217.  The church was consecrated to the Holy Mary, the burial place for Templar high dignitaries who died in Paris.

The church was aligned from west to east, comprising of three parts:

  • The gothic nave was characterised by a clerestory located on the ground floor.
  • The round was built on two floors, encompassed by a circular gallery. The round vault, leant on six pillars, laid out in a circle.
  • The chancel consisted of five bays with tall windows. Access to the bell tower was by way of the south-wall bay.

In the latter part of the 12th century and early 13th century, the preceptor grew larger, and additional buildings were erected, on the six acres of land set aside for the preceptor.  The area was protected by an eight – ten metre high crenellated wall, equipped with buttresses, and flanked by turrets and stone shelters.

The Knights Templar created an International Banking System, which contributed to their increasing wealth.  The Enclos du Temple, became home to their bank, and the European headquarters of the Templar’s.

It is said Philip Augustus made use of their services, by depositing much of his treasures with them in 1190, before departing on the Third Crusade to the Holy Land.

King Henry III

King Henry III

In 1254, King Henry III of England chose to stay at the Knights Templar temple on his visit to France and Paris, instead of the Royal Palace.  One has to ask, how the French King would have felt about that.

The war in the Holy Land had stretched France’s finance’s to breaking point, and the Templar’s had taken control of France’s finances.  In short France was under the control of the Knights Templar, with King Philip IV, nothing more than a puppet king to his people.

The Templar’s had created their own state in France, located within King Philip IV’s own borders.  Philip could no longer stand by watching these Templar’s wealth grow day by day.

During a mass uprising in 1306, King Philip IV accepted the offer of shelter, from the Templar’s.  What he was to discover were rooms full of treasures?  The King became so envious of their wealth; he devised a plan, spreading false rumours, which would lead to their downfall.

On the 12th October 1307, Jacques de Molay, Grand Master of the Knights Templar, was one of the guests at the funeral of Catherine de Courtenay, the wife of Charles de Valois and sister-in-law of Philippe IV.

On the 13th October 1307, the King’s men sent forth to arrest all members of the Knights Templar and seize their assets.

Captured knights were tortured, and brought to trial on false accusations, rumours and slander, and those found guilty were burnt at the stake.

On the 22nd March 1312, the Papal Bull ‘Vox In Excelso’ issued by Pope Clement V, dissolved the Order of the Knights Templar.

On the 2nd May, the Papal Bull ‘Ad Providam’ issued by Pope Clement V, ordered that all assets, property and land to be turned over to the Hospitallers.

Over the next two centuries, the Hospitallers enlarged the church, filled in the ditch around the fortress, and replaced the drawbridge with a stone bridge.

Knights Templar Burnings

Burnt at Stake

On the 18th March 1314, Jacques de Molay, last Grand Master of the Knights Templar, was burnt at the stake, on false charges of heresy.

Jacques de Molay’s last words were to his God, claiming Pope Clement V and King Philip IV, his accusers should join him… thirteen months later, his accusers had died.

The Order of the Hospitallers stayed in the ‘Enclos du Temple’ until the days of the French Revolution, and were eventually disbanded by Napoleon in the 19th century.

By the early years of the 17th century, the area known as Marais, had become an aristocratic neighbourhood of Paris.  The Palace of the Grand Prior of the Temple had become the court of the illegitimate sons of royalty.  Philip the Duke of Vendome, grandson of Henri IV and mistress Gabrielle d’Estree, led a life of debauchery, along with literary and artistic brilliance.

The Comtesse de Boufflers mistress of Horace Walpole, reigned supreme over the court.  It was here the ten-year-old Mozart performed in the drawing room, playing the harpsichord.

On the 13th August 1792, the drawing room played host to a dinner where all the guests were the Royal family and their retinue.  They were the prisoners of the Commune of Paris.  Following the meal, the royal couple, two children and King’s sister were locked up in the Tower of the Temple, and the other women transferred to the Prison of La Force.

Execution of Louis XVI

Execution of King Louis XVI

King Louis XVI and his Queen; Marie Antoinette were imprisoned at the Temple, awaiting their execution at ‘Place de la Revolution;’ King Louis XVI on the 21st January 1793 – Queen Marie Antoinette on the 16th October 1793.

Exécution of Marie Antoinette

Execution of Queen Marie Antoinette

The seven-year-old Dauphin, was taken from his parents, and locked in a cell, until his presumed death in June of 1795.  His body was buried at Sainte Marguerite Cemetery.  As far as anyone was concerned, the body in the grave should have been King Louis XVII (1785-1795), the body of the ten-year-old boy.  In 1894 his remains were dug up, and examination of the body, proved without doubt, the remains were those of an eighteen-year-old boy.  So what happened to the young King, the last of an ancient regime?

French and Austrian authorities did an exchange, the French Princess Royal for five Republican prisoners.

In 1796, the Temple became a state prison, and in 1805 was bought by royalists.  On the 16th March 1808, Napoleon ordered its destruction.

In 1823, the Palace of the Grand Prior became the Benedictine Church of the Perpetual Adoration of the Holy Sacrament.  In 1853, Napoleon III ordered its destruction, and with it, the last remnant of Knights Templar died…

Wikipedia Images

Knights Templar: Gothic Architecture

Gothic Cathadral - PI

Design of Gothic Cathedral

Gregorio Papareschi, was appointed to the post of Pope Innocent II, in the year 1130, supported to the Papal throne by Bernard of Clairvaux.

Pope Innocent II

Pope Innocent II

Following his appointment, to the Papal throne, Pope Innocent II, approved the request made by the Knights Templar, granting them the right, to build and run their own churches.  Overnight the Templar’s became answerable to only one person; the Pope, and out of reach of most authorities.  They could hold their own court, impose taxes, and no longer did the church hold any pressure over them.  They were their own men, and becoming a powerful order.

They planned and developed their own style of buildings, one which was French Gothic by design.  This new style was born in 1134.

The Templar’s mentor and spiritual leader; St.Bernard of Clairvaux, showed his flair, and his designs were used for the building of the north tower at Chartres Cathedral.

Gothic architecture dates back to the 12th century, it was to be an exciting time in Medieval European history, with the development of a new style of buildings.  Many a knight had served in the Holy Land, on the Crusades, and many had been influenced by the buildings and engineering styles used.

Gothic architecture evolved over a 300 year period, with bright and airy interiors, pointed arches to emphasize light and soaring spaces, ribbed vaulting, flying buttresses, tall spires and gargoyles.

The early forms of Gothic architecture was predominately used for the building of cathedrals, and later used in the building of castles, palaces and bridges.

Gothic architecture first emerged in northern France around 1140.

Westminster Abbey

Westminster Abbey

The Gothic style of building was soon taken up by the English, and used in Canterbury Cathedral and Westminster Abbey.

Gothic architecture in Medieval England was developed from Norman building styles, which related to buildings from 1200 – 1500.

Early English Style: 1200 – 1300

Decorated Style: 1300- 1400

Perpendicular Style: 1400 – 1500

Gothic churches and buildings were different to Normans, on their style and way of construction.

  • Stone blocks lined side by side was the choice of Normans, but Gothic buildings used many a shaped stone.
  • Hollow walls favoured by Normans, became solid under Gothic builds, thus they could handle far greater weight.
  • The use of pointed arches strengthened buildings, compared to Normans round arches.

Cathedral roofs were much larger, and buttresses were installed to take extra weight, alongside the nave and into the foundations.  These changes spread additional weight around the building, creating additional strength.

Wikipedia Images

Chartres Cathedral: The Labyrinth

Chartres Cathedral

Chartres Cathedral – France

As one gazes upon the beauty of the gothic styled Chartres Cathedral, built in 12th century France.  One asks what mysteries, what holy designs, will one find?

Located within, upon the stone floor, is an ancient styled Labyrinth, which would have been used by monks for contemplation.

Chartres Cathedral Labyrinth

Chartres Cathedral – Labyrinth

So what is a Labyrinth?

A Labyrinth is a path representing our spiritual journey, with many a twist or a turn, and the walker would find themselves, uncertain where the path was taking them, yet they were never lost.

The Labyrinth has the hand of God, gently guiding us, even though we feel lost or confused, we are being led forward.

As one walks the path to the centre, one walks the way of the world, asking as we walk step by step for God’s forgiveness, for our wrongdoings, and seeking to make amends for our acts.

Upon reaching the centre, it is for us to open ourselves to the love of God, before taking the path back, seeking to follow in the ways of Christ.

The walk of the Labyrinth, gives the walker a chance to seek out how to resolve problems in their lives.  Seeking guidance, times of personal bereavement, or just to walk hand in hand with God.

In its simplest form, a Labyrinth is a path of medication.  You just simply walk it, and allow the mind to be at peace, as the body takes over.

One could describe the Labyrinth, as having three paths:

  • Symbolic path of purgation.
  • Illumination, opening ourselves to the Divine in the centre.
  • Union, is our return path taking the benefits of what we have received, back into our lives.

During the time of the Crusades, Labyrinths were built to provide an alternative, as not everyone could make the pilgrimage to the Holy Land.  The centre of the Labyrinth represented the Holy City of Jerusalem, and became the substituted goal of the journey, for pilgrims.

Chartres Cathedral Labyrinth:

The Labyrinth at Chartres Cathedral, measures forty-two feet in diameter and was built between (1215-1235).  13th century churchmen instructed builders of Chartres, that numbers and symbols were to be used in its design.  The significance of which is drawn from Ancient Greek thoughts; Plato and St.Augustine reflections on the divine order of creation.

The path is laid out in eleven concentric circles intricately woven into a sacred geometric pattern.  It is then surrounded by twenty-eight semi-circular lunations per quadrant, creating a third of the year’s lunar calendar around the Labyrinth’s perimeter.

Chartres Cathedral Labyrinth 1

Labyrinth Design

Wikipedia Images