Gregorio Papareschi, was appointed to the post of Pope Innocent II, in the year 1130, supported to the Papal throne by Bernard of Clairvaux.
Following his appointment, to the Papal throne, Pope Innocent II, approved the request made by the Knights Templar, granting them the right, to build and run their own churches. Overnight the Templar’s became answerable to only one person; the Pope, and out of reach of most authorities. They could hold their own court, impose taxes, and no longer did the church hold any pressure over them. They were their own men, and becoming a powerful order.
They planned and developed their own style of buildings, one which was French Gothic by design. This new style was born in 1134.
The Templar’s mentor and spiritual leader; St.Bernard of Clairvaux, showed his flair, and his designs were used for the building of the north tower at Chartres Cathedral.
Gothic architecture dates back to the 12th century, it was to be an exciting time in Medieval European history, with the development of a new style of buildings. Many a knight had served in the Holy Land, on the Crusades, and many had been influenced by the buildings and engineering styles used.
Gothic architecture evolved over a 300 year period, with bright and airy interiors, pointed arches to emphasize light and soaring spaces, ribbed vaulting, flying buttresses, tall spires and gargoyles.
The early forms of Gothic architecture was predominately used for the building of cathedrals, and later used in the building of castles, palaces and bridges.
Gothic architecture first emerged in northern France around 1140.
The Gothic style of building was soon taken up by the English, and used in Canterbury Cathedral and Westminster Abbey.
Gothic architecture in Medieval England was developed from Norman building styles, which related to buildings from 1200 – 1500.
Early English Style: 1200 – 1300
Decorated Style: 1300- 1400
Perpendicular Style: 1400 – 1500
Gothic churches and buildings were different to Normans, on their style and way of construction.
- Stone blocks lined side by side was the choice of Normans, but Gothic buildings used many a shaped stone.
- Hollow walls favoured by Normans, became solid under Gothic builds, thus they could handle far greater weight.
- The use of pointed arches strengthened buildings, compared to Normans round arches.
Cathedral roofs were much larger, and buttresses were installed to take extra weight, alongside the nave and into the foundations. These changes spread additional weight around the building, creating additional strength.