The St.Clairs of Roslin

Sinclairs

St.Clair Shield

The St.Clairs, later the Sinclair family name, dates back to the Viking Age.

Hrolf also known as Rollo (860-932), the son of Rognvald, the Earl of More, the Viking warrior who plundered Europe’s coastlines, and went on to create the French Dukedom of Normandy, at the mouth of the River Seine.  Rollo was converted to Christianity and baptised by the Archbishop of Rouen in 911AD.

Rollo was the great-great-great grandfather of William I of England (William the Conqueror) who fought for the English crown, at the “Battle of Hastings” in 1066 and won.

Freemasonry was founded in Scotland by Robert the Bruce and William Sinclair, following the “Battle of Bannockburn.”  It was their way of protecting the secrets of the Knights Templar, the so called guardians of the Holy Grail.

The legacy of the Knights Templar and the Masons, is incorporated in the secret symbols and puzzles adorning the walls of Rosslyn Chapel.

Buried vaults, once accessible, below the chapel house the remains of ten Barons of Roslin in full armour, along with their treasures.

Rosslyn Chapel Gargoyle - Holy Grail

Rosslyn Chapel Gargoyle

Legend has it, the Holy Grail, which is believed to have been brought back from Jerusalem, lies with them, they being its protector…  One has to wonder if there is any truth in the legend?

In 1066 William the Conqueror invades England, resulting in the Norman conquest of England’s Saxons, taking the English throne, and aided by the St.Clair knights.

In 1096 Henry St.Clair joins Godfrey de Bouillon on the 1st Crusade to the Holy Land.  King Malcolm III of Scotland grants Rosslyn to Henry.

In 1156 Henry St.Clair is appointed as Ambassador to England by King David I.

The name Sinclair of Norman descent originated from “Saint-Clair-sur-Elle” was established in Scotland in 1162 when Henry St.Clair was granted lands in Lothian.

William St.Clair the son of Henry is born in 1260.

In 1280 Sir William Sinclair becomes guardian to the heir of Alexander III and gains the Barony of Rosslyn.

In 1296, Sir William Sinclair was taken prisoner at the “Battle of Dunbar” and died in the Tower of London.

In 1297 a Scottish army under the command of William Wallace captures Stirling Castle from King Edward I at the “Battle of Stirling Bridge.”  Sir William Sinclair serves as one of Wallace’s commanders.

In 1303, Scottish forces under the leadership of Henry Sinclair and the Comyn Clan, defeated the English at the “Battle of Roslin.”

In 1307 Robert the Bruce and Henry Sinclair’s forces defeated the English at the “Battle of Loudon Hill.”

In 1314 Sir Henry St.Clair fights alongside Robert the Bruce, King of Scotland at the “Battle of Bannockburn.”  They defeated the English, gaining Scotland’s Independence.

In 1320 The Declaration of Arbroath was drawn up to get the Pope to recognise Scotland’s right of Independence, which had not been accepted by the English.  Sir Henry St.Clair was one of the signatories upon the document, which received approval from the Pope.

In 1330 Sir William St.Clair along with John Sinclair, his brother and Scottish knights carried the heart of Robert the Bruce to the Holy Land.  They died in battle in the Holy Land, and their bodies were returned to Scotland.

In 1345 Prince Henry Sinclair is born at Rosslyn Castle.

In 1358 Sir William Sinclair, Prince Henry’s father dies in battle fighting Lithuanians in Prussia.

In 1366 Prince Henry is knighted.

In 1379 Prince Henry Sinclair is installed as the Earl of Orkney and Lord of the Shetland’s.  The Orkney Earldom is obtained from King Haco VI of Norway.

In 1390 Prince Henry meets Nicolo Zeno. Prince Henry goes to the aid of shipwrecked sailors, and discovers these mariners are Venetians.  Their commander; Nicolo Zeno brother of Carlo Zeno famous admiral of the seas, appoints him as commander of his fleet.

In 1398 Prince Henry Sinclair sets sail for the New World, with a fleet of thirteen ships.

In 1399 after wintering in Nova Scotia Prince Henry’s fleet make land at Massachusetts.

Rosslyn Chapel

Rosslyn Chapel

In 1446 William Sinclair builds Rosslyn Chapel, and dedicates it to the Knights Templar.

In 1455 William Sinclair, 3rd Earl of Orkney is granted the Earldom of Caithness.

In 1470 the Earl of Orkney and Caithness was compelled to resign Orkney over to James III in exchange for Castle of Ravenscraig in Fife.  For the King was jealous of the semi-royal chief of the Earldom of Orkney, which had been inherited by the Sinclairs from the Norse Sea-Kings.

In 1513, William Sinclair the 2nd Earl of Caithness lost his life at the “Battle of Flodden,” fighting for James IV of Scotland, who also died in the battle.

In 1568, Henry the 3rd Lord Sinclair was one of those who played his part, assisting Mary, Queen of Scots to escape from Lochleven Castle.

William Sinclair of Mey, was knighted by King James VI of Scotland on the 11th December 1592.

In 1651 while fighting in the army of King Charles II of Scotland against the forces of Oliver Cromwell, John Sinclair is taken prisoner.  He is sent to America as a prisoner of war.

In 1658, John Sinclair now a free man, becomes John Sinkler, and settles in Exeter, New Hampshire, America, where he becomes a landowner.

In 1680, the “Battle of Altimarlech” took place between the Sinclairs and Campbells, over internal land disputes.

The Sinclairs supported the Jacobite rebellion in 1715, by 1745 had changed sides, supporting the British Hanoverian government.

Sir James Sinclair commanded the Royal Scots regiment for the British Hanoverians at the “Battle of Culloden in 1746.

Images: Wikipedia

Knights Templar: Escapees in Scotland

Map - Scotland

Map of Scotland

King Alexander III of Scotland, heir was Margaret Maid of Norway, who became Queen, aged just two, and was promptly betrothed to Edward, the son of King Edward I of England; the next English King.  She died aged seven in September 1290, leaving Anglo-Scottish relations in uproar, for no one person held the undisputed claim of being King of the Scots.

Thirteen claimants stepped forward, and with no outright agreement, they asked King Edward I, to arbitrate, and they would abide by his choice.  John Balliol was Edward’s choice, one he could control.

By 1306, John Balliol had crossed Edward I, who defeated him at the Battle of Dunbar, and Edward had him imprisoned in the Tower of London.  Upon his release, he fled to France.

Robert the Bruce

Robert the Bruce

In 1306, Robert the Bruce, murdered his only rival to the Scottish throne; John Comyn, and was crowned King of Scotland.

With thousands of Templar’s fleeing unjust trials, on trumped up charges of heresy and being burnt at the stake, many fled to Scotland, offering their sword to Robert the Bruce and Scotland.

Robert the Bruce, King of Scotland, sought Independence from the English.

King Edward I died in 1307, and his son became King Edward II, yet his lack of leadership, gave Scotland the breathing space, from attacking forces.

In 1310, Robert Bruce raided English cities in the northern parts of England, and went on to re-capture some of the Scottish castles, held by the English.

Sir Philip Mowbray, captain of Stirling Castle promised the Scots in 1313, if they stop their siege upon the castle, he would yield it to them at midsummer 1314, unless English forces came to his aid first.

King Edward II

King Edward II

King Edward II was forced to take a large army to Scotland, and Stirling Castle, to stop this uprising.

On the 23rd June 1314, Henry de Bohun charged towards Robert Bruce, who side stepped his lance, in return Bohun received the axe from Bruce, smashing through his helmet, and into his brains.

The army of Robert Bruce was outnumbered against Edward’s battle-hardened knights, but the Scots chose their ground carefully.  They used the natural terrain to their advantage.

It wasn’t long before the English made their first mistake; getting hemmed in between the River Forth and Bannocburn.  Scottish warriors bore down upon them with spears, crushing them into marshy grounds.  As the English tried to escape, Scottish guerrillas fell upon them and massacred hundred in the process.

On the second day of the “Battle of Bannockburn,”  mounted Templar Knights smashed through Edward’s infantry and cavaliers, with Scottish knights led by Sir Robert Keith coming up behind.

Edward had no choice, his army was being slaughtered before his very eyes, and he fled the battle, heading for the safety of Stirling Castle, only to be turned away.

Edward headed to Dunbar, and Escaped Scotland by boat, arriving in England defeated.

Robert the Bruce commemorated that day in Scottish history by defeating the English and achieving Scottish Independence… England never recognised Scotland’s Independence.

Robert the Bruce created the Order of Heridom and the Brothers of the Rosy Cross (Rosicrucian).  Later would be known as the Order of Kilwinning, Scotland’s first Masonic Order with Robert the Bruce as its first Grand Master.

Images: Wikipedia

Hugues de Payens – St.Clair Connection

Henry SinclairHenry “The Holy de Saint Clair” (1060-1110) was born in Scotland, and fought in the First Crusade in the Holy Land (1096-1099), where he met and fought alongside; Hugues de Payens.

Hugues de Payens and his retinue visited Scotland, receiving a land grant for the Templars, part of Henry Sinclairs Rosslyn Estate.

In 1127 Hugues de Payens, married Catherine St.Clair, daughter of Henry St.Clair.

History tells us of the arrest and mass execution of French Knights Templar in 1307, by King Philip IV of France, left many countries, many leaders questioning the acts by the French King.

Descendants of Henry “The Holy de Saint Clair,” one Henry Sinclair (1255-1336) and friend of Robert the Bruce, welcomed these warriors of God, these Knights Templar, fleeing for their lives.  Robert the Bruce gave then sanctuary in Scotland.

In return for sanctuary, these Knights Templar changed the outcome at the “Battle of Bannockburn.”  Mounted Templar knights smashed through Edward’s infantry and cavaliers, with Scottish knights led by Sir Robert Keith coming up behind, forcing the English to retreat from the battlefield.

Robert the Bruce

Robert the Bruce

Robert the Bruce had achieved Independence for Scotland, aided by these Knights Templar.  He went on to commemorate that day in Scottish history by creating the Order of Heridom and the Brothers of the Rosy Cross (Rosicrucian).  Later would be known as the Order of Kilwinning, Scotland’s first Masonic Order with Robert the Bruce as its first Grand Master.

Images: Wikipedia