The Eastern Roman Empire were the custodians of the Holy Land…
The Roman Emperor Constantine was the first Emperor to convert to Christianity, after witnessing a cross in the sky, along with his entire army. However, his spiritual growth did not happen overnight. For it was some years later, in 300 AD that Emperor Constantine became a Christian. Shortly thereafter he moved his headquarters to the Holy City of Constantinople.
Constantine devoted himself completely to God, and chose to immerse himself in the inspired writings. He made the priests of God, his closest advisers, for he believed it was his duty to pay homage to the God who had appeared to him, in his vision of the cross.
In the year 614AD, the Holy Land was lost to the Persians, and in 636AD Mohammed the Arab, claimed a new religion under his Islamic banner, as he captured Jerusalem.
In Norman times the Turks originally from present day Kazakhstan over ran Persia, converted to Islam, and expanded eastwards to rule the Holy Land and Egypt and to threaten Anatolia, to the east of the Bosporus. The Byzantine Emperor Romanus set forth from Constantinople to annihilate the Islamic Turks but instead at the land-mark battle of Manzikert (1071) the Christian East Roman armies were routed by the mounted archers of the Turks. This battle proved to the Muslims that they could beat a crack Christian army, and for the next five hundred years the Islamic Turks steadily advanced westwards, conquering all of Europe east of Hungary except Austria, until they captured the Christian city of Constantinople. After Manzikert, the Emperor of Constantinople asked the Pope in Rome for military support.
Unfortunately, Pope Urban II saw the request as an opportunity not only to push the Muslims out of Anatolia but also to recapture Jerusalem for Rome, thus pulling a fast one over his Christian theological rivals in Constantinople.
Had the two Christian groups worked together the outcome might have been different and today’s problem’s in modern day Jerusalem non-existent. However, the same could be said for the Muslims who were then as now split between the Sunni and Shia factions.
Generally speaking, the Crusades were a failure. The first actually recovered Jerusalem and Antioch but the Turks were too powerful and the Christians were expelled. English King Richard I was involved in the 3rd Crusade but his main achievement was taking Cyprus from the Christian Byzantium’s and neglecting his subjects back home. The 4th Crusade during the reign of England’s King John coincides when England lost most of its possessions in France. This Crusade is remembered for the Crusaders diverting from their intended target of Jerusalem, to the headquarters of their allies in Constantinople, with the intention of looting the city, which they did having been invited through the city gates by those who thought they be friends.
There were eight crusades in all. The first during the reign of King William II and the last in the reign of King Henry III. Plantagenet King Richard I was the most famous crusader from the line of English Kings but was so involved that his English subjects hardly ever saw him, and his French lands were neglected.